Benign Conditions

  • L. P. Connolly
  • S. T. Treves


This chapter reviews benign conditions of bone, in which skeletal scintigraphy plays an important role in diagnosis or follow-up. Conditions for which scintigraphy is not generally requested but whose frequency demands a familiarity on the part of pediatric nuclear medicine practitioners are also addressed.


Single Photon Emission Compute Tomography Fibrous Dysplasia Bone Cyst Osteoid Osteoma Aneurysmal Bone Cyst 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Aoki J, Sone A, Fujioka F, et al. MR of enchondroma and chondrosarcoma: rings and arcs of Gd-DTPA enhancement. J Comput Assist Tomogr 1991;15:1011–1016.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Assoun J, Richardi G, Railhac JJ, et al. Osteoid osteoma: MR imaging versus CT. Radiology 1994;191:217–223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bar-Sever Z, Connolly LP, Jaramillo D, et al. Thallium-201 uptake in Langerhans cell histiocytosis of bone. Pediatr Radiol 1996;26:739–741.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Baunin C, Puget C, Assoun J, et al. Percutaneous resection of osteoid osteoma under CT guidance in 8 children. Pediatr Radiol 1994;24:185–188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bensahel H, Bok B, Cavailloles F, et al. Bone scintigraphy in Perthes disease. J Pediatr Orthop 1985;3:302–305.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bos CFA, Bloem JL, Bloem RM. Sequential magnetic resonance imaging in Perthes disease. J Bone Joint Surg [B] 1991;73:219–224.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Brenner RJ, Hattner RS, Lilien DL. Scintigraphic features of nonosteogenic fibroma. Radiology 1979;131:727–730.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Broadbent V, Dunger DB, Yeomans E, et al. Anterior pituitary function and computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging in patients with Langerhans cell histiocytosis and diabetes insipidus. Med Pediatr Oncol 1993;21:649–654.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Burr BA, Resnick D, Syklawer R, et al. Fluid-fluid levels in a unicameral bone cyst: CT and MR findings. J Comput Assist Tomogr 1993;17:134–136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Burrows PE, Greenbert ID, Reed MH. The distal femoral defect: technetium-99m pyrophosphate bone scan results. J Can Assoc Radiol 1982;33:91–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Caffey J, Silverman FA. Infantile cortical hyperostoses: preliminary report on a new syndrome. AJR 1945;54:1–3.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Calver R, Venugopal V, Dorgan J, et al. Radionuclide scanning in the early diagnosis of Perthes’ disease. J Bone Joint Surg [B] 1981;63:379–382.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Campanacci M. Osteofibrous dysplasia of long bones. A new clinical entity. Ital J Orthop Traumatol 1976;2:221–225.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Catterall A. The natural history of Perthes’ disease. J Bone Joint Surg [B] 1971;53:37–53.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cavaillos F, Bok B, Bensahel H. Bone scintigraphy in the diagnosis and follow-up of Perthes disease. Eur J Nucl Med 1982;7:327–330.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chung SMK. The arterial supply of the developing proximal end of the human femur. J Bone Joint Surg [A] 1976;58:961–970.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cline MJ. Histiocytes and histiocytosis. Blood 1994;84:2840–2853.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Conway JJ. Scintigraphic classification of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. Semin Nucl Med 1993;23:274–295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Conway JJ. Radionuclide evaluation of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. In: Treves ST, ed. Pediatric Nuclear Medicine. 2nd ed. New York: Springer-Verlag; 1995:302–315.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Conway JJ, Weiss SC, Maldonado V. Scintigraphic patterns in Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease [abstract]. Radiology 1983;149(suppl):102.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cunningham MJ, Curtin HD, Jaffe R, et al. Otologic manifestations of Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Arch Otolaryngol 1989;115:807–813.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    DeCristofaro R, Biagini R, Boriani S, et al. Selective arterial embolization in the treatment of aneurysmal bone cyst and angioma of bone. Skeletal Radiol 1992;21:523–527.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Dimentberg RA, Brown KLB. Diagnostic evaluation of patients with histiocytosis X. J Pediatr Orthop 1990;10:733–741.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Dogan AS, Conway JJ, Miller JH, et al. Detection of bone lesions in Langerhans cell histiocytosis: complementary roles of scintigraphy and conventional radiography. J Pediatr Hematol 1996;18:51–58.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ducou le Pointe H, Haddad S, Silberman B, et al. Legg-Perthes-Calvé disease: staging by MRI using gadolinium. Pediatr Radiol 1994;24:88–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Fisher RL. An epidemiological study of Legg-Perthes disease. J Bone Joint Surg [A] 1972;54:769–774.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Fisher RL, Roderique JW, Brown DC, et al. The relationship of isotopic bone imaging findings to prognosis in Legg-Perthes disease. Clin Orthop 1980;150:23–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Flores LG, Hoshi H, Nagamachi S, et al. Thallium-201 uptake in eosinophilic granu loma of the frontal bone: comparison with technetium-99m-MDP imaging. J Nucl Med 1995;36:107–110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Fogelman I, McKillop JH, Bessent RG, et al. The role of bone scanning in osteomalacia. J Nucl Med 1978;19:245–248.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Freiberger RH, Loitman BS, Helpern M, et al. Osteoid osteoma: a report of 80 cases. AJR 1959;82:194–205.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Garrison RC, Unni KK, McLeod RA, et al. Chondrosarcoma arising in osteochondroma. Cancer 1982;49:1890–1897.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Geirnaerdt MJ, Bloem JL, Eulderink F, et al. Cartilaginous tumors: correlation of gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging and histopathologic findings. Radiology 1993; 186:813–817.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    George JC, Buckwalter KA, Cohen MD, et al. Langerhans cell histiocytosis of bone: MR imaging. Pediatr Radiol 1994;24:29–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ghelman B, Vigorita V. Postoperative radionuclide evaluation of osteoid osteomas. Radiology 1983;146:509–512.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Gilday DL, Ash JM. Benign bone tumors. Semin Nucl Med 1976;6:33–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Girdany BR, Osman MZ. Longitudinal growth and skeletal maturation in Perthes’ disease. Radiol Clin North Am 1968;6:245–251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Giudici MA, Moser RP, Kransdorf MJ. Cartilaginous bone tumors. Radiol Clin North Am 1993;31:237–259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Golding JSR. The natural history of osteoid osteoma. With a report of 20 cases. J Bone Joint Surg [B] 1954;36:218–229.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Harris WH, Dudley HR, Barry RV. The natural history of fibrous dysplasia. J Bone joint Surg [A] 1962;44:207–233.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hayes CW, Conway WF, Sundaram M. Misleading aggressive MR imaging appearance of some benign musculoskeletal lesions. Radiographics 1992;12:1119–1134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Helms CA. Osteoid osteoma: the double density sign. Clin Orthop 1987;222:167–173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Helms CA, Hattner RS, Vogler JB III. Osteoid osteoma: radionuclide diagnosis. Radiology 1984;151:779–784.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 42a.
    Howarth DM, Mullan BP, Wiseman GA, et al. Bone scintigraphy evaluated in diagnosing and staging Langerhans cell histiocytosis and related disorders. J Nucl Med 1996;37:1456–1460.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 43.
    Hudson TM. Scintigraphy of aneurysmal bone cysts. AJR 1984;142:761–765.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 44.
    Hudson TM. Radiologic-Pathologic Correlation of Musculoskeletal Lesions. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1987.Google Scholar
  46. 45.
    Hudson TM, Hamlin DJ, Fitzsimmons JR. Magnetic resonance imaging of fluid levels in an aneurysmal bone cyst and in anticoagulated human blood. Skeletal Radiol 1985;13:267–270.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 46.
    Hudson TM, Springfield DS, Spanierr SS, et al. Benign exostoses and exostotic chondrosarcomas: evaluation of cartilage thickness by CT. Radiology 1984;152:595–599.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 47.
    Inoue A, Freeman MAR, Vernon-Roberts B, et al. The pathogenesis of Perthes’ disease. J Bone Joint Surg [B] 1976; 58:453–461.Google Scholar
  49. 48.
    Israeli A, Zwas ST, Horoszowski H, et al. Use of radionuclide method in preoperative and intraoperative diagnosis of osteoid osteoma of the spine. Case report. Clin Orthop 1983;175:194–196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 49.
    Jaffe HL. Tumor and Tumorous Conditions of the Bones and Joints. Philadelphia: Lee & Febiger; 1958.Google Scholar
  51. 50.
    Jaramillo D, Kasser JR, Villegas-Medina OL, et al. Cartilaginous abnormalities and growth disturbances in Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease: evaluation with MR imaging. Radiology 1995;197:767–773.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 51.
    Keats TE, Joyce JM. Metaphyseal, cortical irregularities in children. Skeletal Radiol 1985;12:112–118.Google Scholar
  53. 52.
    Kirks DR, Taybi H. Histiocytosis X. in: Parker BD, Castellino RA, eds. Pediatric Oncologic Radiology. St. Louis: Mosby; 1977:209–234.Google Scholar
  54. 53.
    Kneisl JS, Simon MA. Medical management compared with operative treatment for osteoid osteoma. J Bone Joint Surg [A] 1992;74:179–185.Google Scholar
  55. 54.
    Kransdorf MJ, Moser RP, Gilkey FW. Fibrous dysplasia. Radiographics 1990;10:519–537.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 55.
    Kransdorf MJ, Stull MA, Gilkey FW, et al. Osteoid osteoma. Radiographics 1991;11:671–696.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 56.
    Kransdorf MJ, Sweet DE. Aneurysmal bone cyst: concept, controversy, clinical presentation and imaging. AJR 1995;164:573–580.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 57.
    Kumas R, Madewell JE, Lindell MM, et al. Fibrous lesions of bones. Radiographics 1990;10:237–250.Google Scholar
  59. 58.
    LaMont RL, Muz J, Heilbrunner D, et al. Quantitative assessment of femoral head involvement in Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. J Bone Joint Surg [A] 1981;63:746–752.Google Scholar
  60. 59.
    Laor T, Jaramillo D, Oestrich A. Skeletal system. In: Kirks DR, ed. Practical Pediatric Imaging. Diagnostic Radiology of Infants and Children. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven; 1997:327–510.Google Scholar
  61. 60.
    Lee JK, Yao L, Wirth CR. MR Imaging of solitary osteochondromas: report of eight cases. AJR 1987;149:557–560.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 61.
    Libshitz HI, Cohen MA. Radiation-induced osteochondromas. Radiology 1982;142:643–647.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 62.
    Lisbona R, Rosenthall L. Role of radionuclide imaging in osteoid osteoma. AJR 1979;132:77–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 63.
    Makley JT. Prostaglandins—a mechanism for pain mediation in osteoid osteoma. Orthop Trans 1982;6:72.Google Scholar
  65. 64.
    Mandell G A, Dalinka MK, Coleman BG. Fibrous lesions in the lower extremities in neurofibromatosis. AJR 1979;133:1135–1138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 65.
    Mandell G A, Harcke HT. Scintigraphic manifestations of infraction of the second metatarsal (Freiberg’s disease). J Nucl Med 1987;28:249–251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 66.
    Mandell GA, MacKenzie WG, Scott CI, et al. Identification of avascular necrosis in the dysplastic proximal femoral epiphysis. Skeletal Radiol 1989;18:273–281.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 67.
    Mandell GA, Morales RW, Harcke HT, et al. Bone scintigraphy in patients with atypical lumbar Scheuermann’s disease. J Pediatr Orthop 1993;13:622–627.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 68.
    Marcove RC, Sheth DS, Takemoto S, et al. The treatment of aneurysmal bone cyst. Clin Orthop 1995;311:157–163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 69.
    Mazoyer JF, Kohler R, Bossard D. Osteoid osteoma. CT-guided percutaneous treatment. Radiology 1991;181:269–271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 70.
    McAndrew MP, Weinstein SL. A long term follow-up of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. J Bone Joint Surg [A] 1984;66:860–869.Google Scholar
  72. 71.
    Meyer J. Dysplasia epiphysealis capitis femoris. Acta Orthop Scand 1964;34:183–197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 72.
    Milgram JW. The origins of osteochondromas and echondromas. Clin Orthop 1983;174:264–284.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 73.
    Mirra JM, Gold RH. Fibrous dysplasia. In: Mirra JM, Picci P, Gold RH, eds. Bone Tumors. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger; 1989:191–226.Google Scholar
  75. 74.
    Mirra JM, Picci P. Adamantinoma and osteofibrous dysplasia. In: Mirra JM, Picci P, Gold RH, eds. Bone Tumors. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger; 1989:1203–1239.Google Scholar
  76. 75.
    Moberg E. The natural course of osteoid osteoma. J Bone Joint Surg [A] 1951;33:166–170.Google Scholar
  77. 76.
    Murphey MD, Sartoris DJ, Quale JL, et al. Musculoskeletal manifestations of chronic renal insufficiency. Radiographics 1993;13:357–379.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 77.
    Ogden JA. Radiology of postnatal skeletal development: X. Patella and tibial tuberosity. Skeletal Radiol 1984;11:246–247.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 78.
    Ozonoff MB. Pediatric Orthopedic Radiology. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders; 1992.Google Scholar
  80. 79.
    Padfield E, Hicken P. Cortical hyperostosis in infants: a radiological study of 16 patients. Br J Radiol 1970;143:231–237.Google Scholar
  81. 80.
    Pinto MR, Peterson HA, Berquist TH. Magnetic resonance imaging in early diagnosis of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. J Pediatr Orthop 1989;9:19–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 81.
    Pitt MJ. Rickets and osteomalacia are still around. Radiol Clin North Am 1991;29:97–118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 82.
    Pitt MJ. Rickets and osteomalacia. In: Resnick D., ed. Diagnosis of Bone and Joint Disorders. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders; 1995:1885–1922.Google Scholar
  84. 83.
    Ponseti IV, Maynard JA, Weinstein JL, et al. Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease: histochemi-cal and ultrastructural observations of the epiphyseal cartilage and physis. J Bone Joint Surg [A] 1983;65:797–807.Google Scholar
  85. 84.
    Resnick D. Tumors and tumor-like lesions of bone: radiographic principles. In: Resnick D, ed. Diagnosis of Bone and Joint Disorders. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders; 1995:3613–3627.Google Scholar
  86. 85.
    Resnick D, Greenway G. Distal femoral cortical defects, irregularities, and excavations. Radiology 1982;143:345–354.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 86.
    Resnick D, Kyriakos K, Greenway GD. Tumors and tumor-like lesions of bone: imaging and pathology of specific tumors. In: Resnick D, ed. Diagnosis of Bone and Joint Disorders. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders; 1995:3662–3697.Google Scholar
  88. 87.
    Reynolds J. The “fallen fragment sign” in the diagnosis of unicameral bone cysts. Radiology 1969;92:949–953.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 88.
    Rinski LA, Goris M, Bleck E, et al. Intraoperative skeletal scintigraphy for localization of osteoid osteoma of the spine. J Bone Joint Surg [A] 1980;62:143–144.Google Scholar
  90. 89.
    Ritschl P, Hajek PC, Pechmann U. Fibrous metaphyseal defects, magnetic resonance imaging appearances. Skeletal Radiol 1989;18:253–259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 90.
    Ritschl P, Karnel F, Hajek P. Fibrous metaphyseal defects—determination of their origin and natural history using a radiomorphological study. Skeletal Radiol 1988;17:8–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 91.
    Roach PJ, Connolly LP, Zurakowski D, et al. Osteoid osteoma: comparative utility of high resolution planar and pinhole magnification scintigraphy. Pediatr Radiol 1995; 26:222–225.Google Scholar
  93. 92.
    Roger B, Bellin MF, Wioland M, et al. Osteoid osteoma: CT-guided percutaneous excision confirmed with immediate follow-up scintigraphy in 16 outpatients. Radiology 1996;201:239–242.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 93.
    Rosenberg ZS, Kawelblum M, Cheung YY, et al. Osgood-Schlatter lesion: scintigraphic, CT and MR imaging features. Radiology 1992;185:853–858.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 94.
    Rosenthal DI, Alexander A, Rosenberg AE, et al. Ablation of osteoid osteoma with a percutaneously placed electrode: a new procedure. Radiology 1992;183:29–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 95.
    Rush BH, Bramson RT, Ogden JA. Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease: detection of cartilaginous and synovial changes with MR imaging. Radiology 1988;167:473–476.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 96.
    Salter RB, Thompson GH. Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. The prognostic significance of the subchondral fracture and a two group classification of the femoral head involvement. J Bone Joint Surg [A] 1984;66:479–489.Google Scholar
  98. 97.
    Sachis M, Zahir A, Freeman MA. The experimental simulation of Perthes disease by consecutive interruptions of the blood supply to the capital epiphysis in the puppy. J Bone Joint Surg [A] 1973;55:335–342.Google Scholar
  99. 98.
    Schaub T, Ash JM, Gilday DL. Radionuclide imaging in histiocytosis X. Pediatr Radiol 1987;17:397–404.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 99.
    Schulman L, Dorfman HD. Nerve fibers in osteoid osteoma. J Bone Joint Surg [A] 1970;52:1351–1356.Google Scholar
  101. 100.
    Shore RM, Poznanski AK, Annadappa EC, et al. Arterial and venous compromise by an osteochondroma. Pediatr Radiol 1994;24:39–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 101.
    Siddiqui AR, Tashjian JH, Lazurua K, et al. Nuclear medicine studies in evaluation of skeletal lesions in children with histiocytosis X. Radiology 1981;140:787–789.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 102.
    Silverman FN. The bones. In: Silverman FN, ed. Caffey’s Pediatric X-Ray Diagnosis. 8th ed. Chicago: Year Book; 1985:389–914.Google Scholar
  104. 103.
    Simons GN, Sty J. Intraoperative bone imaging in the treatment of osteoid-osteoma of the femoral neck. J Pediatr Orthop 1983;3:399–402.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 104.
    Springfield DS. Bone and soft tissue tumors. In: Morrisy RT, Weinstein SL, eds. Lovell and Winter’s Pediatric Orthopedics. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven; 1996:423–468.Google Scholar
  106. 105.
    Steinmetz JC, Pilon VA, Lee JK. Jaffe-Campanacci syndrome. J Pediatr Orthop 1988; 8:602–604.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 106.
    Stoll M, Freund M, Schmid H, et al. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Cancer 1990;66:284–288.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 107.
    Stull MA, Kransdorf MJ, Devaney KO. Langerhans cell histiocytosis of bone. Radiographics 1992;12:801–823.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 108.
    Sty J, Simons G. Intraoperative 99m-technetium bone imaging in the treatment of osteoblastic tumors. Clin Orthop 1982;165:223–227.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 109.
    Sty JR, Wells RG, Starshak RJ, Gregg D. The musculoskeletal system. In: Sty J, Wells R, Starshak R, Gregg D, eds. Diagnostic Imaging of Infants and Children. Vol. 3. Gai-thesburg: Aspen; 1992:233–405.Google Scholar
  111. 110.
    Sutherland AD, Savage JP, Paterson DC, et al. The nuclide bone scan in the diagnosis and management of Perthes disease. J Bone Joint Surg [B] 1980;62:300–306.Google Scholar
  112. 111.
    Swee RG, McLeod RA, Beabout JW. Osteoid osteoma: detection, diagnosis and localization. Radiology 1979;130:117–123.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 112.
    Taylor GA, Shea N, O’Brien TO, et al. Osteoid osteoma: localization by intraoperative magnification scintigraphy. Pediatr Radiol 1986;16:313–316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 113.
    Towbin R, Kaye R, Meza MP, et al. Osteoid osteoma: percutaneous excision using a CT-guided coaxial technique. Am J Radiol 1995;164:945–949.Google Scholar
  115. 113a.
    Treves ST, Connolly LP, Kirkpatrick JA et al Bone. In Treves ST (ed) Pediatric Nuclear Medicine. 2nd ed. 1995 New York: Springer-Verlag; 233–301.Google Scholar
  116. 114.
    Tsai JC, Dalinka MK, Fallon MD, et al. Fluid-fluid level: a nonspecific finding in tumors of bone and soft tissue. Radiology 1990;175:779–782.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 115.
    Tupler RH, Turbiner EH. Tc-99m labeled RBC scan in Maffucci’s syndrome. Clin Nucl Med 1991;16:872–873.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 116.
    Unni KK. Dahlin’s Bone Tumors: General Aspects and Data on 11,087 Cases. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven; 1996.Google Scholar
  119. 117.
    Utz JA, Kransdorf MJ, Jelinek JS, et al. MR appearance of fibrous dysplasia. J Comput Assist Tomogr 1989;13:845–851.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 118.
    VandeBerg B, Malghem J, Labaisse MA, et al. Avascular necrosis of the hip: comparison of contrast-enhanced and nonenhanced MR imaging with histologic correlation. Work in progress. Radiology 1992;182:445–450.Google Scholar
  121. 119.
    Vickers CW, Pugh DC, Ivins JC. Osteoid osteoma. A fifteen year follow-up in an untreated patient. J Bone Joint Surg [A] 1959;41:357–358.Google Scholar
  122. 120.
    Vigorita VJ, Ghelman B. Localization of osteoid osteoma-use of radionuclide scanning and autoimaging in identifying the nidus. Am J Clin Pathol 1983;79:223–225.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 121.
    Waugh W. The ossification and vascularization of the tarsal navicular and their relation to Köhler disease. J Bone Joint Surg [B] 1958;68:834–839.Google Scholar
  124. 122.
    Weinstein SL. Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. In: Morrisy RT, Weinstein SL, eds. Lovell and Winter’s Pediatric Orthopedics. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven; 1996:951–992.Google Scholar
  125. 123.
    Willman CL. Detection of conal histiocytes in Langerhans cell histiocytosis: biology and clinical significance. Br J Cancer 1994;70:S29–S33.Google Scholar
  126. 124.
    Winter WA, Veraart BE, Vandegaal WP. Bone scintigraphy in patients with juvenile kyphosis (M. Scheuermann). Diagn Imaging 1981;50:186–190.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 125.
    Yamazaki T, Maruoka S, Takahashi S, et al. MR findings of avulsive cortical irregularities of the distal femur. Skeletal Radiol 1995;24:43–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. P. Connolly
    • 1
    • 2
  • S. T. Treves
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of Nuclear MedicineChildren’s HospitalBostonUSA
  2. 2.Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations