Distraction of the Orbit
Congenital anophthalmos/microphthalmos or early enucleation in the infant child removes the stimulation for subsequent development of the surrounding bones of the orbit (1–4). This has adverse growth effects with resultant decrease in all orbital dimensions. In addition, the growth disturbances may be transferred to the development of the zygomaticomaxillary complex and mandible depending on how early the eye is absent from the orbit during development (Figures 15A.1 and 15A.2) (1).
KeywordsTissue Expander Orbital Height Orbital Volume Infraorbital Foramen Lateral Orbital Wall
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Kennedy RE. Growth retardation and volume determinations of the anophthalmic orbit. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 70: 277, 1972.Google Scholar
- 3.Kennedy RE. The effect of early enucleation on the orbit in animals and humans. Trains Am Ophthalmol Soc 62: 459, 1964.Google Scholar
- 11.Tessier P, Rougier J, Hervouet F, Woillez M, Lekieffre M, Derome P. Microphthalmias and congenital anophthalmias. In: Plastic Surgery of the Orbit and Eyelids. Report of the French Society of Ophthalmology. New York: Masson Publishing; 1977: pp. 184–190.Google Scholar
- 12.Todd TW, Beecher H, Williams etal. The weight and growth of the human eyelball. Human Biol 12: 1, 1940.Google Scholar
- 13.Thomson WE. The determination of the influence of the eyeball on the growth of the orbit by experimental enucleation of one eye in young animals. Trans Opthalmol Soc (UK) 21: 258, 1901.Google Scholar
- 16.Taylor WOG. The effect of enucleation of one eye in childhood upon the subsequent development of the face. Trans Ophthalmol Soc (UK) 59: 361, 1939.Google Scholar
- 17.Pfeiffer RL. The effect of enucleation on the orbit. Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol 49: 236, 1945.Google Scholar