In ecological time scale and local spatial scales, biodiversity is the issue of coexistence of different species. However, in evolutionary time scales and global spatial scales, biodiversity is a result of the balance of speciation and extinction of species. In geological history, rapid speciation, called adaptive radiation, has occured repeatedly. The origins of such newly developing taxa often evolved from the symbosis of two different species (Price 1991). Thus, symbosis can be considered an important source of the Earth’s current biodiversity, and in this context symbosis can be called evolutionary innovation (Margulis 1993).
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