FLAPS pp 63-92 | Cite as

Critical Choices in Breast Reconstruction

  • Bryant A. Toth
  • Bryan G. Forley


The diagnosis of breast cancer combines the trauma of managing a potentially fatal disease with a radical assault on the body image of the patient. Women afflicted with this disease in the 1990s are bombarded with a multitude of choices regarding both treatment and reconstructive options at an extremely vulnerable and anxious time in their lives. Complicating the decision is the inevitable disagreement among physicians as to the best modality for surgical treatment and/or the need for adjunctive radiation or chemotherapy. The additional option of breast reconstruction compounds the choices faced by the patient, her general surgeon, and her plastic surgeon.


Breast Reconstruction Rectus Muscle Critical Choice Inframammary Fold Transverse Rectus Abdominis Myocutaneous 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Frykberg ER, Bland KI. Evolution of surgical principles for the management of breast cancer. In: Bland KI, Copeland EM, editors. The Breast: Comprehensive Management of Benign and Malignant Diseases. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1991:539–569.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fisher B, Bauer M, Margolese R, et al. Five-year results of a randomized clinical trial: Comparing total mastectomy and segmental mastectomy with or without radiation in the treatment of breast cancer. N Engl J Med, 1985;312:665.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Toth BA, Lappert P. Modified skin incisions for mastectomy: The need for plastic surgical input in preoperative planning. Plast Reconstr Surg, 1991;87:1048.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hartrampf CR Jr. Hartrampf’s Breast Reconstruction with Living Tissue. Norfolk, Va.: Hampton Press, 1991.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bryant A. Toth
    • 1
  • Bryan G. Forley
    • 2
  1. 1.San Francisco Attending Plastic Surgeon, California Pacific Medical CenterUniversity of CaliforniaSan FranciscoUSA
  2. 2.Department of Plastic SurgeryBeth Israel Medical CenterNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations