• Richard A. Marder
  • George J. Lian


The great toe and its metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint are affected by numerous injuries, that in turn affect athletic performance. During the last phase of stance in the gait cycle, the body’s weight is transferred forward onto the ball of the foot and the toes. From heel rise to toe-off during barefoot gait, the first MTP joint dorsiflexes with the joint subjected to a force 0.8 times body weight (McBride et al., 1991). Progressively decreasing forces are measured at the second through fifth MTP joints. First MTP joint forces are increased severalfold during athletic activities that involve running and jumping. The crouched position of a baseball catcher and the en pointe position of a ballet dancer are examples of high stress that occurs at the first MTP joint during athletics (Teitz et al., 1985). Such stress can lead to both acute and chronic injuries of the great toe.


Hallux Valgus Proximal Phalanx Metatarsal Head Athletic Activity Plantar Plate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard A. Marder
    • 1
  • George J. Lian
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Medicine Chief, Sports Medicine ServiceUniversity of California DavisSacramentoUSA
  2. 2.School of Medicine Department of Orthopaedic SurgeryUniversity of California DavisSacramentoUSA

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