Computer Models

  • K. S. Kunzelman
  • R. P. Cochran


Most early surgical advances were made by astute clinical researchers in the operating room or at the bedside. In this early era of surgical research, Halsted described the hospital as the “ surgeon’s laboratory.”1 Practical and ethical limitations on the use of the bedside “laboratory ” and the human as the subject of the experiment led in the early portion of the twentieth century to the use of animal models for developing surgical techniques, defining physiologic responses, and testing new interventions.


Finite Element Model Mitral Valve Papillary Muscle Mitral Valve Repair Posterior Leaflet 
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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. S. Kunzelman
  • R. P. Cochran

There are no affiliations available

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