Micromanipulation of the Male Gamete

  • Sarah K. Girardi
  • Peter N. Schlegel


Since the first report in 19831 of a live birth resulting from in vitro fertilization, the field of assisted reproduction has virtually exploded. Perhaps the most impressive advances made in the past decade in assisted reproduction have been in the area of male factor infertility. As recently as 10 years ago, couples with infertility due to abnormal semen quality were advised to pursue donor insemination or adoption. Today, those same couples and even men with azoospermia from unreconstructable reproductive tract obstruction are able to contribute to pregnancies through assisted reproductive techniques that facilitate sperm and egg interaction. Such techniques range from the relatively simple intrauterine insemination to the more complicated in vitro fertilization combined with partial zona dissection, subzonal insemination, or intracytoplasmic sperm injection.


Pregnancy Rate Fertilization Rate Zona Pellucida Acrosome Reaction Male Gamete 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sarah K. Girardi
  • Peter N. Schlegel

There are no affiliations available

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