# Stability of the Quadratic Functional Equation

• Donald H. Hyers
• George Isac
• Themistocles M. Rassias
Chapter
Part of the Progress in Nonlinear Differential Equations and Their Applications book series (PNLDE, volume 34)

## Abstract

$$f\left( {x + y} \right) + f\left( {x - y} \right) - 2f\left( x \right) - 2f\left( y \right) = 0$$
(3.1)
clearly has f(x) = cx2 as a solution with c an arbitrary constant when f is a real function of a real variable. We define any solution of (3.1) to be a quadratic function, even in more general contexts. We shall be interested in functions f: E1→ E2 where both E1 and E2 are real vector spaces, and we need a few facts concerning the relation between a quadratic function and a biadditive function sometimes called its polar. This relation is explained in Proposition 1, p. 166, of the book by J. Aczél and J. Dhombres (1989) for the case where E2 = R, but the same proof holds for functions f: E1→ E2. It follows then that f: E1→ E2 is quadratic if and only if there exists a unique symmetric function B: E1 × E1 E2, additive in x for fixed y, such that f (x) = B(x, x). The biadditive function B, the polar of f, is given by
$$B\left( {x,y} \right) = \left( {\begin{array}{*{20}{c}} 1 \\ - \\ 4 \end{array}} \right)\left( {f\left( {x + y} \right) - f\left( {x - y} \right)} \right)$$

## Authors and Affiliations

• Donald H. Hyers
• George Isac
• 1
• Themistocles M. Rassias
• 2