Subcellular and Subnuclear Trafficking of Steroid Receptors
Many external signals affect cell physiology through alterations in gene expression. Cell surface receptors, once they have been activated by the binding of appropriate ligands, mobilize signal transduction cascades that may ultimately affect the activity of defined sets of transcription factors. Receptors for steroid hormones, in contrast, are soluble, intracellular proteins that function as transcription factors to directly regulate the transcriptional activity of target genes. Thus, steroid hormones utilize a streamlined signal transduction system in which a single protein, the steroid hormone receptor, has the capacity both to recognize an external signal and to transduce that signal to alterations in specific gene expression. The delivery of activated steroid receptors to genomic target sites must be efficient to account for the rapidity and selectivity of many transcriptional responses to steroid hormones. This review will focus on recent advances in subcellular trafficking of steroid receptors, and will include discussions both of receptor trafficking between different subcellular compartments (i.e., the cytoplasm and nucleus) and of the trafficking of receptors within a specific compartment (i.e., the nucleus).
KeywordsHydrolysis Estrogen Serine Glucocorticoid Progesterone
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Barrack ER (1987): Localization of steroid receptors in the nuclear matrix. In: Steroid Hormone Receptors. Their Intracellular Localisation Clark CR, ed. Chichester (England): Ellis Horwood Ltd.Google Scholar
- Bohen SP, and Yamamoto KR (1994): Modulation of steroid receptor signal transduction by heat shock proteins. In: The Biology of Heat Shock Proteins and Molecular Chaperones Morimoto, RI, Tissieres, A, Georgopoulos, C, eds. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.Google Scholar
- DeFranco DB, Madan AP, Tang Y, Chandran UR, Xiao N, and Yang J (1995) Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling of Steroid Receptors. In: Vitamins and Hormones Litwack, G, ed. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
- Gorski J, Toft D, Shyamala G, Smith D, and Notides A (1968): Hormone receptors: studies on the interaction of estrogen with the uterus. Recent Prog. Hormone Res. 24: 45–80.Google Scholar
- Ktistaki E, Ktistakis NT, Papadogerogaki E, and Talianidis I (1995): Recruitment of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 into specific intranuclear compartments depends on tyrosine phosphorylation that affects its DNA-binding and transactivation potential. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92: 9876–9880.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lombes M, Farman N, Oblin ME, Baulieu EE, Bonvalet JP, Erlanger BF, and Gasc JM (1990): Immunohistochemical localization of rat renal mineralocorticoid receptor by using an anti-idiotypic antibody that is an internal image of aldosterone. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87: 1086–1088.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sanchez ER, Hirst M, Scherrer LC, Tang HY, Welsh MJ, Harmon JM, Simons SSJ, Ringold GM, and Pratt WB (1990): Hormone-free mouse glucocorticoid receptors overexpressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells are localized to the nucleus and are associated with both hsp70 and hsp90. J. Biol. Chem. 265: 20123–20130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Stutz F, Neville M, and Rosbash M (1995): Identification of a novel nuclear pore-associated protein as a functional target of the HIV-1 Rev protein in yeast. Cell 82: 495–506.Google Scholar
- van Steensel B, Brink M, van der Meulen K, van Binnendijl EP, Wansink DG, de Jong L, de Kloet ER, and van Driel R (1995a): Localization of the glucocorticoid receptor in discrete clusters in the cell nucleus. J. Cell Sci. 108: 3003–3011.Google Scholar