Subcellular and Subnuclear Trafficking of Steroid Receptors
Many external signals affect cell physiology through alterations in gene expression. Cell surface receptors, once they have been activated by the binding of appropriate ligands, mobilize signal transduction cascades that may ultimately affect the activity of defined sets of transcription factors. Receptors for steroid hormones, in contrast, are soluble, intracellular proteins that function as transcription factors to directly regulate the transcriptional activity of target genes. Thus, steroid hormones utilize a streamlined signal transduction system in which a single protein, the steroid hormone receptor, has the capacity both to recognize an external signal and to transduce that signal to alterations in specific gene expression. The delivery of activated steroid receptors to genomic target sites must be efficient to account for the rapidity and selectivity of many transcriptional responses to steroid hormones. This review will focus on recent advances in subcellular trafficking of steroid receptors, and will include discussions both of receptor trafficking between different subcellular compartments (i.e., the cytoplasm and nucleus) and of the trafficking of receptors within a specific compartment (i.e., the nucleus).
KeywordsGlucocorticoid Receptor Steroid Receptor Nuclear Export Nuclear Matrix Nuclear Import
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