Exchange energy representations in computational micromagnetics
Magnetism is a property that all materials possess as a result of the quantum mechanical spin of electrons. The magnetic moment of an atom results from electron spins in an unfilled inner electronic shell. Magnetic effects are particularly pronounced in the ferromagnetic elements such as iron (Fe), cobalt (Co) and nickel (Ni) where interactions cause parallel alignment of the moments on neighboring atoms. In materials less susceptible to magnetization, the atomic moments may be small or the moments may be randomized by thermal fluctuations.
KeywordsPermeability Vortex Nickel Anisotropy Torque
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