Exchange energy representations in computational micromagnetics

  • Avner Friedman
Part of the The IMA Volumes in Mathematics and its Applications book series (IMA, volume 100)


Magnetism is a property that all materials possess as a result of the quantum mechanical spin of electrons. The magnetic moment of an atom results from electron spins in an unfilled inner electronic shell. Magnetic effects are particularly pronounced in the ferromagnetic elements such as iron (Fe), cobalt (Co) and nickel (Ni) where interactions cause parallel alignment of the moments on neighboring atoms. In materials less susceptible to magnetization, the atomic moments may be small or the moments may be randomized by thermal fluctuations.


Magnetization Vector Industrial Problem Bloch Wall Crystalline Anisotropy Atomic Moment 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Avner Friedman
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Mathematics and its ApplicationsUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA

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