This chapter examines tissue and body impedance as it affects the evaluation of electrical stimulation. It is concerned generally with current levels exceeding 100μA, and voltage levels exceeding 1 V. As a result, many of the special problems associated with characterizing the body’s response to microampere currents or millivolt potentials will not be relevant. For a thorough discussion of impedance in biological measurements at very low voltages and currents, the reader is directed to the work of Geddes (1972).
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