Neonatal Vitamin Metabolism: Water Soluble

  • Richard J. Schanler


Water-soluble vitamins play key roles in the developing human being. They function as cofactors for enzyme reactions of intermediary metabolism and therefore are dependent on the energy and protein contents of the diets as well as on the rates of growth and energy utilization of the individual. First elucidated as etiologic agents of diseases now known to be deficiency syndromes, their necessity was reiterated during the early development of artificial diets and parenteral feeding.


Premature Infant Human Milk Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide Pantothenic Acid Thiamine Deficiency 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    King JC. Vitamin requirements during pregnancy. In: Campbell DM, Billmer MDG, eds. Nutrition in pregnancy. London: The Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, 1983: 33–45.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dostalova L. Correlation of the vitamin status between mother and newborn during delivery. Dev Pharmacol Ther 1982; 4: 45–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Link G, Zempleni J. Intrauterine elimination of pyridoxal 5’-phosphate in full-term and preterm infants. Am J Clin Nutr 1996; 64: 184–189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Baker H, Frank O, Thomson AD. Vitamin profiles of 174 mothers and newborns at parturition. Am J Clin Nutr 1975; 28: 56–65.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Newman V, Lyon RB, Anderson PO. Evaluation of prenatal vitamin-mineral supplements. Clin Pharm 1987; 6: 770–777.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Udall JN Jr, Greene HL. Vitamin update. Pediatr Rev 1992; 13: 185–194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Nutrition. Nutritional needs of low-birth-weight infants. Pediatrics 1985; 75: 976–986.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    National Research Council (U.S.), Subcommittee on the Tenth Edition of the RDAs. Recommended Dietary Allowances. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1989.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wharton BA. Nutrition and feeding of preterm infants. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific, 1987.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Greene HL, Hambidge KM, Schanler R, Tsang RC. Guidelines for the use of vitamins, trace elements, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus in infants and children receiving total parenteral nutrition: report of the Subcommittee on Pediatric Parenteral Nutrient Requirements from the Committee on Clinical Practice Issues of the American Society for Clinical Nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr 1988; 48: 1324–1342.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Moran JR, Greene HL. The B vitamins and vitamin C in human nutrition I. General considerations and “obligatory” B vitamins. Am J Dis Child 1979; 133: 192–199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rindi G, Venura U. Thiamine intestinal transport. Physiol Rev 1972; 52: 821–827.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gubler CJ. Thiamine. In: Machlin LJ, ed. Handbook of vitamins. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1991: 233–282.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Goldsmith GA. Vitamin B complex. Thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, folic acid (folacin), vitamin B12, biotin. Prog Food Nutr Sci 1975; 1: 559–609.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Schanler RJ, Nichols BL. The water soluble vitamins C, B1, B2, B6, and niacin. In: Tsang RC, ed. Vitamin and mineral requirements in preterm infants. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1985: 39–62.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Davis RE, Icke GC. Clinical chemistry of thiamine. Adv Clin Chem 1983; 23: 93–140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Itokawa Y, Cooper JR. Ion movements and thiamine. II. Release of the vitamin from membrane fragments. Acta Biochim Biophys 1970; 196: 274–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cochrane WA, Collins-Williams C, Donohue WL. Superior hemorrhagic polioencephalitis (Wernicke’s disease) occurring in an infant-probably due to thiamine deficiency from use of a soya bean product. Pediatrics 1961; 28: 771–777.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Macy IG. Composition of human colostrum and milk. Am J Dis Child 1949; 78: 589–603.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Adams CF. Nutritive value of American foods. Washington, DC: Agricultural Research Service. 1975.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Thomas MR, Sneed SM, Wei C. The effects of vitamin C, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, folic acid, riboflavin, and thiamine on the breast milk and maternal status of well-nourished women at 6 months postpartum. Am J Clin Nutr 1980; 33: 2151–2156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Knott EM, Kleiger SC, Torres-Bracamonte F. Factors affecting the thiamine content of breast milk. J Nutr 1943; 25: 49–58.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ford JE, Zechalko A, Murphy J, Brooke OG. Comparison of the B vitamin composition of milk from mothers of preterm and term babies. Arch Dis Child 1983; 58: 367–372.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Roderuck CE, Williams HH, Macy IG. Human milk studies. XXIII. Free and total thiamine contents of colostrum and mature human milk. Am J Dis Child 1945; 70: 162–170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Nail PA, Thomas MR, Eakin R. The effect of thiamine and riboflavin supplementation on the level of those vitamins in human breast milk and urine. Am J Clin Nutr 1980; 33: 198–204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Pratt JP, Hamil BM, Moyer EZ, et al. Metabolism of women during the reproductive cycle. XVIII. The effect of multi-vitamin supplements on the secretion of B vitamins in human milk. J Nutr 1951; 44: 141–157.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Pennington JAT. Bowes & Church’s food values of portions commonly used. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott, 1994.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Causeret J. La valeur vitaminique des laits animaux comparaison avec celle du lait de femme. Ann Nutr Alim 1971; 25: A313–A334.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Zaloga GP, Bortenschlaer L. Vitamins In: Gay SM, ed. Nutition in critical care. St. Louis: Mosby Year Book, 1994: 217–242.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Holt LE Jr, Nemir RL, Snyderman SE, et al. The thiamine requirement of the normal infant. J Nutr 1949; 37: 53–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Moore MC, Greene HL, Phillips B, et al. Evaluation of a pediatrics multiple vitamin preparation for total parenteral nutrition in infants and children. I. Blood levels of water-soluble vitamins. Pediatrics 1986; 77: 530–538.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Marinier E, Gorski AM, Potier de Courcy G, et al. Blood levels of water soluble vitamins in pediatric patients on total parenteral nutrition using a multiple vitamin preparation. J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1989; 13: 176–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Greene HL, Porchelli P, Adcock E, Swift L. Vitamins for newborn infant formulas: a review of recommendations with emphasis on data from low birth-weight infants. Eur J Clin Nutr 1992; 46: S1–S8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    American Medical Association, Council on Scientific Affairs. Vitamin preparations as dietary supplements and therapeutic agents. JAMA 1987; 257: 1929–1936.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Institute of Medicine, Subcommittee on Nutritional Status and Weight Gain During Pregnancy So. Nutrition during pregnancy. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1990.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    La Selve P, Demolin P, Holzapfel L, et al. Shoshin beriberi: an unusual complication of prolonged parenteral nutrition. J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1986; 10: 102–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    McCormick DB. Thiamin. In: Shils ME, Young VR, eds. Modern nutrition in health and disease. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1988: 355–361.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Rascoff H. Beriberi heart in a 4 month old infant. JAMA 1942; 120: 1292–1293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    King EQ. Acute cardiac failure in the newborn due to thiamine deficiency. Exp Med Surg 1967; 25: 173–177.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Wyatt DT, Noetzel MJ, Hillman RE. Infantile beriberi presenting as subacute necrotizing encephalomyelopathy. J Pediatr 1987; 110: 888–891.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Van Gelder DW, Darby FU. Congenital and infantile beriberi. J Pediatr 1944; 25: 226–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Heller S, Salkeld RM, Korner WF. Vitamin B1 status in pregnancy. Am J Clin Nutr 1974; 27: 1221–1224.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Malone JI. Vitamin passage across the placenta. Clin Perinatol 1975; 2: 295–307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Powers JS, Zimmer J, Meurer K, et al. Direct assay of vitamins B1, B2, and B6 in hospitalized patients: relationship to level of intake. JPEN 1993; 17: 315–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Alhadeff L, Gualtieri CT, Lipton M. Toxic effects of water soluble vitamins. Nutr Rev 1984; 42: 33–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Horwitt MK. Interpretations of requirements for thiamine, riboflavin, niacin-tryptophan, and vitamin E plus comments on balance studies and vitamin B6. Am J Clin Nutr 1986; 44: 973–986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Bates CJ, Liu DS, Fuller NJ, Lucas A. Susceptibility of riboflavin and vitamin A in breast milk to photodegradation and its implications for the use of banked breast milk in infant feeding. Acta Paediatr Scand 1985; 74: 40–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Fritz I, Said H, Harris C, et al. A new sensitive assay for plasma riboflavin using high performance liquid chromatography. J Am Coll Nutr 1987; 6: 449 (Abstract).Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Chen MF, Boyce HW, Triplett L. Stability of the B vitamins in mixed parenteral nutrition solution. J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1983; 7: 462–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Porcelli PJ, Greene HL, Adcock EW. Retinol (vitamin A) and riboflavin (vitamin B2) administration and metabolism in very low birth weight infants. Semin Perinatol 1992; 16: 170–180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Cooperman JM, Lopez R. Riboflavin. In: Machlin LJ, ed. Handbook of vitamins. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1991: 283–310.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Roderuck CE, Coryell MN, Williams HH. Human milk studies: XXIV. Free and total riboflavin contents of colostrum and mature milk. Am J Dis Child 1945; 70: 171–175.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Hughes J, Sanders TAB. Riboflavin levels in the diet and breast milk of vegans and omnivores. Proc Nutr Soc 1979; 38: 95A.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Deodhar AD, Rajalakshmi R, Ramakrishnan CV. Studies on human lactation—part III: effect of dietary vitamin supplementation on vitamin contents of breast milk. Acta Paediatr 1964; 53: 42–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Hovi L, Hekali R, Siimes MA. Evidence of riboflavin depletion in breast-fed newborns and its further acceleration during treatment of hyperbilirubinemia by photo-therapy. Acta Paediatr Scand 1979; 68: 567–570.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Sisson TR. Photodegradation of riboflavin in neonates. Fed Proc 1987; 46: 1883–1885.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Ronnholm KAR. Need for riboflavin supplementation in small preterms fed with human milk. Am J Clin Nutr 1986; 43: 1–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Lucas A, Bates C. Transient riboflavin depletion in preterm infants. Arch Dis Child 1984; 59: 837–841.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Porcelli PJ, Adcock EW, DelPaggio D, et al. Plasma and urine riboflavin and pyridoxine concentrations in enterally fed very-low-birth-weight neonates. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1996; 23: 141–146.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Baeckert PA, Greene HL, Fritz I, et al. Vitamin concentrations in very low birth weight infants given vitamins intravenously in a lipid emulsion: measurement of vitamins A, D, E, and riboflavin. J Pediatr 1988; 113: 1057–1065.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Lopez R, Cole HS, Montoya F, Cooperman JM. Riboflavin deficiency in a pediatric population of low socioeconomic status in New York City. J Pediatr 1975; 105: 420–422.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Reddy VAP, Bates CJ, Goh SGJ, et al. Riboflavin, folate and vitamin C status of Gambian women during pregnancy: a comparison between urban and rural communities. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1987; 81: 1033–1037.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Bates CJ, Prentice AM, Paul AA, et al. Riboflavin status in Gambian pregnant and lactating women and its implications for Recommended Dietary Allowances. Am J Clin Nutr 1981; 34: 928–935.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Brzezinski A, Bromberg YM, Braun K. Riboflavin deficiency in pregnancy. J Obstet Gynecol 1947; 54: 182–186.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Bates CJ, Prentice AM, Paul AA, et al. Riboflavin status in infants born in rural Gambia, and the effect of a weaning food supplement. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1982; 76: 253–258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    McCormick DB. Niacin. In: Shils ME, Young VR, eds. Modern nutrition in health and disease. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1988: 370–375.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Hankes LV. Nicotinic acid and nicotinamide. In: Machlin LI, ed. Handbook of vitamins. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1984: 329–377.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Moran JR, Greene HL. Nutritional biochemistry of water-soluble vitamins. In: Grand RJ, Sutphen JL, Dietz WH Jr, eds. Pediatric nutrition theory and practice. Stoneham: Butterworth, 1987: 51–67.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Holt LE Jr. The adolescence of nutrition. Arch Dis Child 1956; 31: 427–438.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Darby WJ, McNutt KW, Todhunter EN. Niacin. Nutr Rev 1975; 33: 289–297.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Spivak JL, Jackson DL. Pellagra: an analysis of 18 patients and a review of the literature. Johns Hopkins Med J 1977; 140: 295–309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Moran JR, Greene HL. The B vitamins and vitamin C in human nutrition. II: “Conditional” B vitamins and vitamin C. Am J Dis Child 1979; 133: 308–314.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Lumeng L, Li TK, Lui A. The interorgan transport and metabolism of vitamin B6. In: Reynolds RD, Leklem JE, eds. Vitamin B6: its role in health and disease. New York: Alan R. Liss, 1985: 35–54.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Bender DA. Vitamin B6 requirements and recommendations. Eur J Clin Nutr 1989; 43: 289–309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Fomon SJ. Nutrition of normal infants. St. Louis: Mosby-Year Book, 1993.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Contractor SF, Shane B. Blood and urine levels of vitamin B6 in the mother and fetus before and after loading of the mother with vitamin B6. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1970; 107: 635–640.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Driskell JA. Vitamin B6. In: Machlin LJ, ed. Handbook of vitamins. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1984: 379–401.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Heiskanen K, Siimes MA, Perheentupa J, Salmenpera L. Risk of low vitamin B6 status in infants breast-fed exclusively beyond six months. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1996; 23: 38–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Styslinger L, Kirksey A. Effects of different levels of vitamin B6 supplementation on vitamin B6 concentrations in human milk and vitamin B6 intakes of breastfed infants. Am J Clin Nutr 1985; 41: 21–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Thomas MR, Kawamoto J, Sneed SM, Eakin R. The effects of vitamin C, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 supplementation on the breast milk and maternal status of well-nourished women. Am J Clin Nutr 1979; 32: 1679–1685.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Kirksey A, Udipi SA. Vitamin B6 in human pregnancy and lactation. In: Reynolds RD, Leklem JE, eds. Vitamin B6: its role in health and disease. New York: Alan R. Liss, 1985: 57–77.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Sneed SM, Zane C, Thomas MR. The effects of ascorbic acid, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and folic acid supplementation on the breast milk and maternal nutritional status of low socioeconomic lactating women. Am J Clin Nutr 1981; 34: 1338–1346.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    West KD, Kirksey A. Influence of vitamin B6 intake on the content of the vitamin in human milk. Am J Clin Nutr 1976; 29: 961–969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Kirksey A, Roepke JLB. Vitamin B6 nutriture of mothers of three breast-fed neonates with central nervous system disorders. Fed Proc 1981; 40: 864 (Abstract).Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Bessey OA, Adam DJD, Hansen AE. Intake of vitamin B6 and infantile convulsions: a first approximation of requirements of pyridoxine in infants. Pediatrics 1957; 20: 33–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Borschel MW, Kirksey A, Hannemann RE. Effects of vitamin B6 intake on nutriture and growth of young infants. Am J Clin Nutr 1986; 43: 7–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Karra MV, Udipi SA, Kirksey A, Roepke JLB. Changes in specific nutrients in breast milk during extended lactation. Am J Clin Nutr 1986; 43: 495–503.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    McCoy E, Strynadka K, Brunet K. Vitamin B6 intake and whole blood levels of breast and formula fed infants: serial whole blood vitamin B6 levels in premature infants. In: Reynolds RD, Leklem JE, eds. Vitamin B6: its role in health and disease. New York: Alan R. Liss, 1985: 79–96.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Molony CJ, Parmelee AH. Convulsions in young infants as a result of pyridoxine (vitamin B6) deficiency. JAMA 1954; 154: 405–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Andon MB, Reynolds RD, Moser PB, et al. Impaired ability of premature infants 29 weeks gestational age to convert pyridoxine to pyridoxal phosphate. Fed Proc 1987; 46: 1016.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Raiten DJ, Reynolds RD, Andon MB, et al. Vitamin B-6 metabolism in premature infants. Am J Clin Nutr 1991; 111. 53: 78–83.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Schuster K, Bailey LB, Mahan CS. Effect of maternal pyridoxine-HCI supplementation on the vitamin B-6 status of mother and infant and on pregnancy outcome. J Nutr 1984; 114: 977–988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Reynolds RD, Polansky M, Moser PB. Analyzed vitamin B-6 intakes of pregnant and postpartum lactating and nonlactating women. J Am Diet Assoc 1984; 84: 1339–1344.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Black AE, Wiles SJ, Paul AA. The nutrient intakes of pregnant and lactating mothers of good socio-economic status in Cambridge, UK: some implications for recommended daily allowances of minor nutrients. Br J Nutr 1986; 56: 59–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Schuster K, Bailey LB, Dimperio D, Mahan CS. Morning sickness and vitamin B6 status of pregnant women. Hum Nutr Clin Nutr 1985; 39C: 75–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Schaumburg H, Kaplan J, Windebank A, et al. Sensory neuropathy from pyridoxine abuse-a new megavitamin syndrome. N Engl J Med 1983; 309: 445–448.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Brody T. Folic acid. In: Machlin LJ, ed. Handbook of vitamins. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1991: 453–489.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Davis RE. Clinical chemistry of folic acid. Adv Clin Chem 1986; 25: 233–294.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Herbert VD, Colman N. Folic acid and vitamin B12. In: Shils ME, Young VR, eds. Modern nutrition in health and disease. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1988: 388–416.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Tamura T, Shane B, Baer MT, et al. Absorption of mono-and polyglutamyl folates in zinc-depleted man. Am J Clin Nutr 1978; 31: 1984–1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Herbert V. Recommended dietary intakes (RDI) of folate in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 1987; 45: 661–670.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Gerson CD, Cohen N, Hepner GW, et al. Folic acid absorption in man: enhancing effect of glucose. Gastroenterology 1971; 61: 224–227.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Hillman RS, McGuffin R, Campbell C. Alcohol interference with the folate enterohepatic cycle. Trans Assoc Am Phys 1977; 90: 145–156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Herbert V, Das KC. The role of vitamin B-12 and folic acid in hemato- and other cell-poiesis. Vitam Horm 1976; 34: 1–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Ek J, Magnus E. Plasma and red cell folate values and folate requirements in formula-fed term infants. J Pediatr 1982; 100: 738–744.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Metz J, Zalusky R, Herbert V. Folic acid binding by serum and milk. Am J Clin Nutr 1968; 21: 289–297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Brown CM, Smith AM, Picciano MF. Forms of human milk folacin and variation patterns. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1986; 5: 278–282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Smith AM, Picciano MF, Deering RH. Folate intake and blood concentrations of term infants. Am J Clin Nutr 1985; 41: 590–598.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Salmenpera L, Perheentupa J, Siimes MA. Folate nutrition is optimal in exclusively breast-fed infants but inadequate in some of their mothers and formula-fed infants. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1986; 5: 283–289.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Tamura T, Yoshimura Y, Arakawa T. Human milk folate and folate status in lactating mothers and their infants. Am J Clin Nutr 1980; 33: 193–197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Ek J, Magnus EM. Plasma and red blood cell folate in breast-fed infans. Acta Peadiatr Scand 1979; 68: 239–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Ek J. Folic acid and vitamin B12 requirements in premature infants. In: Tsang RC, ed. Vitamin and mineral requirements in preterm infants. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1985: 23–38.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Edwards JH, Holmes-Siedle M, Lindenbaum RH. Vitamin supplementation and neural tube defects. Lancet 1982; 1: 275–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Strelling MK, Blackledge DG, Goodall HB. Diagnosis and management of folate deficiency in low birthweight infants. Arch Dis Child 1979; 54: 271–277.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Stevens D, Burman D, Strelling K, Morris A. Folic acid supplementation in low birth weight infants. Pediatrics 1979; 64: 333–335.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Ek J, Behneke L, Halvorsen KS, Magnus E. Plasma and red cell folate values and folate requirements in formula-fed premature infants. Eur J Pediatr 1984; 142: 78–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Bartels PC, Helleman PW, Soons JBJ. Investigation of red cell size-distribution histograms related to folate, vitamin B12 and iron state in the course of pregnancy. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1989; 49: 763–771.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Rush D. Periconceptional folate and neural tube defect. Am J Clin Nutr 1994; 59: 511S–516S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Daly LE, Kirke PN, Molloy A, et al. Folate levels and neural tube defects. Implications for prevention. JAMA 1996; 274: 1698–1702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Rayburn WF, Stanley JR, Garrett ME. Periconceptional folate intake and neural tube defects. J Am Coll Nutr 1996; 15: 121–125.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Matoth Y, Zehavi E, Topper E, Klein T. Folate nutrition and growth in infancy. Arch Dis Child 1979; 54: 699–702.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Shojania AM, Hornady G. Folate metabolism in newborns and during early infancy. Pediatr Res 1970; 4: 422–426.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Rodriguez MS. A conspectus of research on folacin requirements of man. J Nutr 1978; 108: 1983–2075.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Smithells RW, Shepard S, Schorah CJ. Vitamin deficiencies and neural tube defects. Arch Dis Child 1976; 51: 944950.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Mulinare J, Cordero JF, Erickson JD, Berry RJ. Periconceptional use of multivitamins and the occurrence of neural tube defects. JAMA 1988; 260: 3141–3145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Mills JL, Rhoads GG, Simpson JL, et al. The absence of a relation between the periconceptional use of vitamins and neural-tube defects. N Engl J Med 1989; 321: 430–435.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Rickes EL, Brink NG, Koniuszy FR. Crystalline vitamin B12. Science 1948; 107: 396–397.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Herbert V. The 1986 Herman Award Lecture. Nutrition science as a continually unfolding story: the folate and vitamin B-12 paradigm. Am J Clin Nutr 1987; 46: 387–402.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Herbert V. Recommended dietary intakes (RDI) of vitamin B-12 in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 1987; 45: 671–678.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Sandberg DP, Begley JA, Hall CA. The content, binding, and forms of vitamin B12 in milk. Am J Clin Nutr 1981; 34: 1717–1724.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Johnson PR Jr, Roloff JS. Vitamin B12 deficiency in an infant strictly breast-fed by a mother with latent pernicious anemia. J Pediatr 1982; 100: 917–919.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Carmel R, Lau KW, Baylink DJ, et al. Cobalamin and osteoblast-specific proteins. N Engl J Med 1988; 319: 70–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Higginbottom MC, Sweetman L, Nyhan WL. A syndrome of methylmalonic aciduria, homocystinuria, megaloblastic anemia and neurologic abnormalities in a vitamin B12-deficient breast-fed infant of a strict vegetarian. N Engl J Med 1978; 299: 317–323.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Stollhoff K, Schulte FJ. Vitamin B12 and brain development. Eur J Pediatr 1987; 146: 201–205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Specker BL, Miller D, Norman EJ, et al. Increased urinary methylmalonic acid excretion in breast-fed infants of vegetarian mothers and identification of an acceptable dietary source of vitamin B12. Am J Clin Nutr 1988; 47: 89–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Collins JE, Rolles CJ, Sutton H, Ackery D. B12 absorption after necrotizing enterocolitis. Arch Dis Child 1984; 59: 731–734.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Herbert V. Vitamin B12. In: Hegsted DM, Chichester CO, Darby WJ, et al., eds. Nutrition review’s present knowledge in nutrition. New York: Nutrition Foundation, 1976: 191–203.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Harrison RJ. Vitamin B-12 levels in erythrocytes in hypochromic anaemia. J Clin Pathol 1971; 24: 698–700.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Riedel BD, Greene HL, Vitamins. In: Hay WW Jr, ed. Neonatal nutrition and metabolism. St. Louis: Mosby Year Book, 1991: 143–170.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Gross SJ. Choline, pantothenic acid, and biotin. In: Tsang RC, ed. Vitamin and mineral requirements in preterm infants. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1985: 191–201.Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Fox HM. Pantothenic acid. In: Machlin LJ, ed. Handbook of vitamins. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1984: 437–458.Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Song WO, Chan GM, Wyse BW, Hansen RG. Effect of pantothenic acid status on the content of the vitamin in human milk. Am J Clin Nutr 1984; 40; 317–324.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Johnston L, Vaughn L, Fox HM. Pantothenic acid content of human milk. Am J Clin Nutr 1981; 34: 2205–2209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Coryell MN, Harris ME, Miller S. Human milk studies XXII. Nicotinic acid, pantothenic acid and biotin contents of colostrum and mature human milk. Am J Dis Child 1945; 70: 150–161.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Bonjour J. Biotin. In: Machlin LJ, ed. Handbook of vitamins. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1991: 393–427.Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Roth KS. Biotin in clinical medicine-a review. Am J Clin Nutr 1981; 34: 1967–1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Goldsmith SJ, Eitenmiller RR, Feeley RM, et al. Biotin content of human milk during early lactational stages. Nutr Res 1982; 2: 579–583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Bonjour JP. Biotin in man’s nutrition and therapy-a review. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1977; 47: 107–118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Hamil BM, Coryell M, Roderuck C, et al. Thiamine, riboflavin, nicotinic acid, pantothenic acid and biotin in the urine of newborn infants. Am J Dis Child 1947; 74: 434–446.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Mock DM, DeLorimer AA, Liebman WM, et al. Biotin deficiency: an unusual complication of parenteral alimentation. N Engl J Med 1981; 304: 820–823.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Olson JA, Hodges RE. Recommended dietary intakes (RDI) of vitamin C in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 1987; 45: 693–703.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Levine M. New concepts in the biology and biochemisty of ascorbic acid. N Engl J Med 1986; 314: 892–902.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Irwin MI, Hutchins BK. A conspectus of research on vitamin C requirements of man (2). J Nutr 1976; 106: 823–879.Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Light IJ, Berry HK, Sutherland TM. Aminoacidemia of prematurity. Am J Dis Child 1966; 112: 229–236.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Adlard BPF, De Souza SW, Moon S. Ascorbic acid in the fetal human brain. Arch Dis Child 1974; 49: 278–282.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Arad ID, Eyal FG. High plasma ascorbic acid levels in preterm neonates with intraventricular hemorrhage. Am J Dis Child 1983; 137: 949–951.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Teel HM, Burke BS, Draper R. Vitamin C in human pregnancy and lactation. I. Studies during pregnancy. Am J Dis Child 1938; 56: 1004–1010.Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Ibeziako PA, Ette SI. Plasma ascorbic acid levels in Nigerian mothers and newborns. Trop Pediatr 1981; 27: 263–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Jaffe GM. Vitamin C. In: Machlin LJ, ed. Handbook of vitamins. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1984: 199–244.Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Ingalls TH. Ascorbic acid requirements in early infancy. N Engl J Med 1938; 218: 872–875.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Selleg I, King CG. The vitamin C content of human milk and its variation with diet. J Nutr 1936; 11: 599–606.Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Salmenpera L. Vitamin C nutrition during prolonged lactation: optimal in infants while marginal in some mothers. Am J Clin Nutr 1984; 40: 1050–1056.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Byerley LO, Kirksey A. Effects of different levels of vitamin C intake on the vitamin C concentration in human milk and the vitamin C intakes of breast-fed infants. Am J Clin Nutr 1985; 41: 665–671.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Bates CJ, Prentice AM, Prentice A, et al. The effect of vitamin C supplementation on lactating women in Keneba, a West African rural community. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1983; 53: 68–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Arad ID, Sagi E, Eyal FG. Plasma ascorbic acid levels in preterm infants. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1982; 52: 50–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Rassin DK, Gaull GE, Raiha NCR, Heinonen K. Milk protein quantity and quality in low-birth-weight infants. IV. Effects on tyrosine and phenylalanine in plasma and urine. J Pediatr 1977; 90: 356–360.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Heinonen K, Mononen I, Mononen T, et al. Plasma vitamin C levels are low in premature infants fed human milk. Am J Clin Nutr 1986; 43: 923–924.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Shils ME, Baker H, Frank O. Blood vitamin levels of longterm adult home total parenteral nutrition patients: the efficacy of the AMA-FDA parenteral multivitamin formulation. J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1985; 9: 179–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Grewar D, Scurvy and its prevention by vitamin C fortified evaporated milk. Can Med Assoc J 1959; 80: 977–979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Packard VS. Vitamins. In: Packard VS, ed. Human milk and infant formula. New York: Academic Press, 1982: 29–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Botto LD, Khoury MJ, Mulinare J, Erickson JD. Periconceptional multivitamin use and the occurrence of conotruncal heart defects: results from a population-based, case-control study. Pediatrics 1996;98:911–917.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard J. Schanler

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations