From Orthogonal Projections to Symbolic Projections

  • Shi-Kuo Chang
Part of the Applied and Numerical Harmonic Analysis book series (ANHA)


Symbolic projections are applicable to pictorial information retrieval and spatial reasoning problems where the relative spatial locations of objects are of interest. In this chapter the elements of the Theory of Symbolic Projection are introduced. 2D string representations of symbolic pictures are described. A survey of various applications is provided.


Orthogonal Projection Spatial Relation Chinese Character Spatial Reasoning Similarity Query 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    S. K. Chang, “The reconstruction of binary patterns from their projections,” Communications of the ACM 14 21–25 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    S. K. Chang, Q. Y. Shi, and C. W. Yan, “Iconic indexing by 2D strings,” IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence PAMI-9 413–428 (1987).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    S. K. Chang, E. Jungert, and Y. Li, “Representation and retrieval of symbolic pictures using generalized 2D strings,” In Proc. of SPIE Visual Communications and Image Processing Conference, pp. 1360–1372, 1989.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    E. Jungert, “Extended symbolic projections as a knowledge structure for spatial reasoning and planning,” In J. Kittler, Pattern Recognition (Springer-Verlag, Berlin), pp. 343–351, 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    S. K. Chang and E. Jungert, Symbolic projection for image information retrieval and spatial reasoning (Academic Press, London), 1996.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    S. K. Chang, C. W. Yan, T. Arndt, and D. Dimitroff, “An intelligent image database system,” IEEE Trans. on Software Engineering SE-14 681–688 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    S. K. Chang and S. H. Liu, “Indexing and abstraction techniques for pictorial databases,” IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence PAMI-6 475–484 (1984).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    S L Tanimoto, “An iconic/symbolic data structuring scheme,” Pattern recognition and artificial intelligence (Academic Press, New York), pp. 452–471, 1976.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    L. G. Shapiro and R. M. Haralick, “A spatial data structure”, Technical Report CS 79005-R, Dept. Comput. Sci.,Virginia Polytech. Inst. and State University, 1979.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    M. Sties, B. Sanyal, and K. Leist, “Organization of object data for an image information system,” In Proceedings 3rd Int. Joint Conference on Pattern Recognition, pp. 863–869, 1976.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    A. Klinger, M. L. Rhode and V. T. To, “Accessing image data,” Int. J. Policy Analysis Information Syst. 1 171–189 (1978).Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    J. W. Hildebrandt and K. Tang, “Symbolic two and three dimensional picture retrieval,” In Workshop on Two and Three Dimensional Spatial Data: Representation and Standards (Australian Pattern Recognition Society, Perth, WA), 1992.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    Y. G. Sun, “Description of Topological Spatial Relations and Representation of Spatial Relations using 2D T-String,” Ph.D. Thesis, Wuhan Surveying Technology University, Wuhan, China, 1993.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    S. Y. Lee and F. J. Hsu, “Spatial reasoning and similarity retrieval of images using 2D C-string knowledge representation,” Pattern Recognition 25 305–318 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    C. C. Chang and D. C. Lin, “Utilizing the concept of longest common subsequence to retrieve similar chinese characters,” Computer Processing of Chinese and Oriental Languages 8, pp. 177–191 (1994).Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    S. K. Chang and E. Jungert, “A Spatial Knowledge Structure for Visual Information Systems,” In T. Ichiakawa, R. Korfhage and E. Jungert, Visual Languages and Applications (Plenum Publishing Co, New York), pp. 277–304, 1990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    I. K. Sethi and K. Han, “Use of local structural association for retrieval and recognition of signature images,” In W. Niblack and R. C. Jain, SPIE Proceedings of Storage and Retrieval for Image and Video Databases III (SPIE, Bellingham, WA) 2420 pp. 125–134, 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    A. Del Bimbo, M. Campanai, and P. Nesi, “A three-dimensional iconic environment for image database querying,” IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering SE-19 997–1011 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    A. Del Bimbo, E. Vicario, and D. Zingoni, “A spatial logic for symbolic description of image contents,” Journal of Visual Languages and Computing 3, pp. 267–286 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    M. L. Dorf, A. F. Mahler, and P. F. Lehmann, “Incorporating semantics into 2D strings,” In D. Cizmar, Proceedings of 22nd Annual ACM Computer Science Conference (ACM, New York), pp. 110–115, 1994.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    S. Kostomanolakis, M. Lourakis, C. Chronaki, Y. Kavaklis, and S. C. Orphanoudakis, “Indexing and retrieval by pictorial content in the i2C image database system,” Technical report,Institute of Computer Science, Foundation for Research and Technology-HELLAS, Heraklion, Crete,Greece, 1993.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shi-Kuo Chang
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA

Personalised recommendations