Advertisement

Menstrual Cycle Interaction with the Growth Hormone Axis

  • Per Ovesen
  • Nina Vahl
  • Jens Sandahl Christiansen
  • Johannes D. Veldhuis
  • Jens Otto Lunde Jorgensen
Chapter
Part of the Proceedings in the Serono Symposia USA Series book series (SERONOSYMP)

Abstract

The periodicity of the menstrual cycle results from interactions among the hypothalamus, pituitary, ovaries, and genital tract. Each normal cycle culminates in menstrual bleeding, the first day of which is defined as the beginning of a menstrual cycle. The human menstrual cycle is divided into three phases: a follicular, or proliferative, phase; an ovulatory phase; and a luteal, or secretory, phase. The initiation of follicular growth begins during the late luteal phase of the preceding menstrual cycle, during which serum levels of progesterone (P) and estrogen (E2) decline, because of termination of the corpus luteum lifespan, and levels of FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) rise. The rise in FSH initiates follicular development, which continues after the onset of menstrual bleeding. However, FSH then declines as a result of negative feed- back from the increasing E2 secreted by the granulosa cells of the growing follicle. During the follicular phase, E2 levels rise in parallel to the growth of the follicle and number of granulosa cells. LH levels increase at the midfollicular phase as a result of the positive feedback caused by increased E2 release. Just before ovulation, E2 secretion increases dramatically, which initiates the LH surge. LH promotes the process of luteinization of the granulosa cells and consequently enhances P secretion, which in turn facilitates the midcycle surge. After ovulation the remaining follicle undergoes striking changes resulting in the formation of the corpus luteum, which secretes a large amount of P and, to a lesser extent, E2. Accordingly, healthy young women exhibit different gonadal hormone milieus during the normal menstrual cycle, and such variations provide a model to investigate the impact of endogenously secreted estrogen and progesterone on GH secretion.

Keywords

Growth Hormone Menstrual Cycle Granulosa Cell Early Follicular Phase Normal Menstrual Cycle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Hansen AP, Weeke J. Fasting serum growth hormone levels and growth hormone responses to exercise during normal menstrual cycles and cycles of oral contraceptives. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1974;34:199–205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Frantz AG, Rabkin MT. Effects of estrogen and sex difference on secretion of human growth hormone. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1965;25:1470–1480.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Merimee TJ, Fineberg SE, Tyson JE. Fluctuations of human growth hormone secretion during menstrual cycle: response to arginine. Metabolism 1969;18:606–608.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Genazzani AR, Lemarchand Beraud T, Aubert ML, Felber JP. Pattern of plasma ACTH, hGH, and cortisol during menstrual cycle. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1975;41:431–437.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Faria AC, Bekenstein LW, Booth RAJ, Vaccaro VA, Asplin CM, Veldhuis JD, Thorner MO, Evans WS. Pulsatile growth hormone release in normal women during the menstrual cycle. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1992;36:591–596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ovesen P, Vahl N, Fisker S, Veldhuis JD, Christiansen JS, Jorgensen JOL. Increased pulsatile but not basal growth hormone secretion rates and plasma insulin-like growth factor I levels during the periovulatory interval in normal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998;83(5):1662–1667.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Zadik Z, Chalew SA, McCarter RJJ, Meistas M, Kowarski AA. The influence of age on the 24-hour integrated concentration of growth hormone in normal individuals. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1985;60:513–516.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hoist N, Jenssen TG, Burhol PG, Haug E, Forsdahl F. Plasma gastrointestinal hormones during spontaneous and induced menstrual cycles. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1989;68:1160–1166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Stone BA, Marrs RP. Growth hormone in serum of women during the menstrual cycle and during controlled ovarian hyperstimulation. Fertil Steril 1991;56:52–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Evans WS, Borges JL, Vance ML, Kaiser DL, Rogol AD, Furlanetto R, Rivier J, Vale W, Thorner MO. Effects of human pancreatic growth hormone-releasing factor-40 on serum growth hormone, prolactin, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and somatomedin-C concentrations in normal women throughout the menstrual cycle. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1984;59:1006–1010.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gelato MC, Pescovitz OH, Cassorla F, Loriaux DL, Merriam GR. Dose-response relationships for the effects of growth hormone-releasing factor-( 1-44)-NH2 in young adult men and women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1984;59:197–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wang HS, Lee JD, Soong YK. Serum levels of insulin-like growth factor I and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 and-3 in women with regular menstrual cycles. Fertil Steril 1995;63:1204–1209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Van Dessel HJHMT, Chandrasekher Y, Yap OWS, Lee PDK, Hintz RL, Faessen GHJ, Braat DDM, Fauser BCJM, Giudice LC. Serum and follicular fluid levels of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), IGF-II, and IGF-binding protein-1 and-3 during the normal menstrual cycle. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1996;81:1224–1231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Klein NA, Battaglia DE, Miller PB, Soules MR. Circulating levels of growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-I and growth hormone binding protein in normal women of advanced reproductive age. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1996;44:285–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Albertsson Wikland K, Rosberg S, Karlberg J, Groth T. Analysis of 24-hour growth hormone profiles in healthy boys and girls of normal stature: relation to puberty. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1994;78:1195–1201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Weissberger AJ, Ho KK, Lazarus L. Contrasting effects of oral and transdermal routes of estrogen replacement therapy on 24-hour growth hormone (GH) secretion, insulin-like growth factor I, and GH-binding protein in postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1991;72:374–381.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Friend EF, Hartman ML, Pezzoli SS, Clasey JL, Thorner MO. Both oral and transdermal estrogen increase growth hormone release in postmenopausal women— a clinical research center study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1996;81:2250–2256.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ho KY, Evans WS, Blizzard RM, Veldhuis JD, Merriam GR, Samojlik E, Furlanetto R, Rogol AD, Kaiser DL, Thorner MO. Effects of sex and age on the 24-hour profile of growth hormone secretion in man: importance of endogenous estradiol concentrations. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1987;64:51–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Massa G, Igout A, Rombauts L, Frankenne F, Vanderschueren Lodeweyckx M. Effect of oestrogen status on serum levels of growth hormone-binding protein and insulin-like growth factor-I in non-pregnant and pregnant women. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1993;39:569–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Vahl N, Jorgensen JOL, Jurik AG, Christiansen JS. Abdominal adiposity and physical fitness are major determinants of the age-associated decline in stimulated GH secretion in healthy adults. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1996;81:2209–2215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Vahl N, Jorgensen JOL, Skjaerbaeck C, Veldhuis JD, Orskov H, Christiansen JS. Abdominal adiposity rather than age and sex predicts the mass and patterned regularity of growth hormone secretion in mid-life healthy adults. Am J Physiol 1997;272:E1108–1116PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Per Ovesen
  • Nina Vahl
  • Jens Sandahl Christiansen
  • Johannes D. Veldhuis
  • Jens Otto Lunde Jorgensen

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations