Estrogen Receptor Expression in the Pituitary Gland
Estradiol has been demonstrated to affect the production or release of all six major anterior pituitary hormones (1–5). Although some of the effects of estradiol on hormonal secretion are primarily hypothalamic in nature, other physiologically relevant actions appear to occur directly within the anterior pituitary gland itself (6–9). According to our current understanding of the signal transduction mechanics of estradiol, the presence of an estrogen receptor (ER) is necessary for such direct actions. This has been the primary rationale for performing experiments to determine which types of anterior pituitary cells express estrogen receptors. By defining which anterior pituitary cells are ER positive, we are identifying which populations of cells possess the necessary cellular machinery to make them at least capable of responding directly to estradiol.
KeywordsEstrogen Receptor Pituitary Adenoma Anterior Pituitary Gland Estrogen Receptor Expression Human Pituitary Adenoma
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Veldhuis JD, Samojlik E, Evans WS, Rogol AD, Ridgeway CE, Crowley WF, et al. Endocrine impact of pure estradiol replacement in postmenopausal women: alterations in anterior pituitary hormone release and circulating sex steroid hormone concentrations. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1986; 155:334–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 3.Wiedemann E, Schwartz E, Frantz AG. Acute and chronic effects upon somatomedin C activity, growth hormone and prolactin in man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1975;42: 942–50.Google Scholar
- 15.Barley J, Ginsburg M, MacLusky NJ, Morris ID, Thomas PJ. Sex differences in the distribution of cytoplasmic oestrogen receptors in rat brain and pituitary: effects of gonadectomy and neonatal androgen treatment. Brain Res 1997; 129(2):309–18.Google Scholar
- 18.Keefer DA. Quantification of in vivo 3H-estrogen uptake by individual anterior pituitary cell types of male rat: a combined autoradiographic-immunocytochemical technique. J Histochem Cytochem 1981;29(suppl lA):167–74.Google Scholar
- 22.Nakoa H, Koga M, Arao M, Nakao M, Sato B, Kishimoto S, Saitoh Y, Arita N, Mori S. Enzyme immunoassay for estrogen receptors in human pituitary adenomas. Acta Endocrinol 1989; 120:233–8.Google Scholar
- 23.Stefaneanu L, Kovacs K. Immunocytochemical approach to demonstrate the estrogen receptor in human adenohypophyses and pituitary adenomas with monoclonal antibody. Med Sci Res 1988; 16:449–50.Google Scholar
- 26.Zhu Z, Ang LE, Friend KE. Identification of two novel truncated estrogen receptor isoforms in rat pituitary. In: 6th International Conference on Cell Biology, 1996, San Francisco, CA.Google Scholar