A transducer is a device which transforms nonelectrical energy into electrical energy or vice versa. (See, e.g., Middlehoek and Hoogerwerf .)
A transducer is a device which transforms energy from one domain into another. (See for example Rosenberg and Karnopp .) Typical energy domains are mechanical, electrical, chemical, fluid, and thermal.
A transducer is a device which transforms energy from one type to another, even if both energy types are in the same domain. (See Busch-Vishniac  for instance.)
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- 2.R. C. Rosenberg and D. C. Karnopp, Introduction to Physical System Dynamics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1983).Google Scholar