Pathogenetic Mechanisms of Animal Orbiviruses That Cause Disease at Low Copy Number
Orbivirus is a genus in the family Reoviridae and includes epizootic hemorrhagic disease viruses (EHDV), bluetongue viruses (BTV), and African horses sickness viruses. All members of this genus have an arthropod vector, replicate in the cytoplasm of infected cells, and have a double-layered protein capsid consisting of seven polypeptides, each of which is encoded by one of ten double-stranded RNA viral segments . The outcome of orbivirus infection varies, ranging from subclinical or mild disease to acute and fatal disease. Acute disease, as seen in sheep and some wild ruminants, is characterized by inflammation, hemorrhage, and/or necrosis of mucosal surfaces in the oronasal and alimentary systems. Animals that survive infection may develop chronic dermatitis and vesicular and/or erosive lesions at interdigital and mucosal surfaces .
KeywordsGene Segment Viral Nucleic Acid Mononuclear Leukocyte Wild Ruminant Bluetongue Virus
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