Physiological and Environmental Causes of Freezing Injury in Red Spruce

  • Paul G. Schaberg
  • Donald H. DeHayes
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 139)


For many, concerns about the implications of “environmental change” conjure up scenarios of forest responses to global warming, enrichment of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide and methane, and the northward migration of maladapted forests. From that perspective, the primary focus of this chapter, that is, causes of freezing injury to red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.), may seem somewhat counterintuitive and inconsistent with the overall theme of the book. However, the dramatically increased incidence of freezing injury to northern montane red spruce forests over the past four decades is, in fact, largely a function of human-induced environmental change. “Environmental change” in the context of this chapter includes both changing climatic patterns and chemical changes in the atmospheric, forest canopy, and/or soil environment that may directly or indirectly result from atmospheric wet (precipitation or cloud water) or dry (direct deposition of gases or aerosols) deposition.


Cold Acclimation Cold Tolerance Electrolyte Leakage Freezing Tolerance Cloud Water 
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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul G. Schaberg
  • Donald H. DeHayes

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