Physiological and Environmental Causes of Freezing Injury in Red Spruce

  • Paul G. Schaberg
  • Donald H. DeHayes
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 139)

Abstract

For many, concerns about the implications of “environmental change” conjure up scenarios of forest responses to global warming, enrichment of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide and methane, and the northward migration of maladapted forests. From that perspective, the primary focus of this chapter, that is, causes of freezing injury to red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.), may seem somewhat counterintuitive and inconsistent with the overall theme of the book. However, the dramatically increased incidence of freezing injury to northern montane red spruce forests over the past four decades is, in fact, largely a function of human-induced environmental change. “Environmental change” in the context of this chapter includes both changing climatic patterns and chemical changes in the atmospheric, forest canopy, and/or soil environment that may directly or indirectly result from atmospheric wet (precipitation or cloud water) or dry (direct deposition of gases or aerosols) deposition.

Keywords

Permeability Methane Phosphorus Chlorophyll Carbohydrate 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aber JD, Magill A, McNulty SG, Boone RD, Nadelhoffer KJ, Downs M, Hallet R (1995) Forest biogeochemistry and primary production altered by nitrogen saturation. Water Air Soil Pollut 85:1665–1670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adams GT, Perkins TD (1993) Assessing cold tolerance in Picea using chlorophyll fluorescence. Environ Exp Bot 33:377–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adams GT, Perkins TD, Klein RM (1991) Anatomical studies on first-year winter injured red spruce foliage. Am J Bot 78:1199–1206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Atkinson MM, Keppler LD, Orlandi EW, Baker CJ, Mischke CF (1990) Involvement of plasma membrane calcium influx in bacterial induction of the K+/H+ and hypersensitive responses in tobacco. Plant Physiol 92: 215–221.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Borer CH, DeHayes DH, Schaberg PG, Cumming JR (1997) Relative quantification of membrane-associated calcium (mCa) in red spruce mesophyll cells. Trees 12:21–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Boyce RL (1995) Patterns of foliar injury to red spruce on Whiteface Mountain, New York, during a high-injury winter. Can J For Res 25:166–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Burns RM, Honkala BH (1990) Silvics of North America. Vol. 1. Conifers. Agric Handbook 654. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  8. Campagna MA, Margolis HA (1989) Influence of short-term atmospheric CO2 enrichment on growth, allocation patterns, and biochemistry of black spruce seedlings at different stages of development. Can J For Res 19:773–782.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cape JN et al. (1991) Sulphate and ammonium in mist impair the frost hardiness of red spruce seedlings. New Phytol 125:119–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Crotty CM, Poole RJ (1995) Activation of an outward rectifying current by low temperature in alfalfa protoplasts. Plant Physiol 108:38.Google Scholar
  11. Dalen LS, Johnsen O, Ogner G. (1977) Frost hardiness development in young Picea abies seedlings under simulated autumn conditions in a phytotron—effects of elevated CO2, nitrogen and provenance. Plant Physiol 114:126.Google Scholar
  12. Davies HW, Monk-Talbot LS (1990) Permeability characteristics and membrane lipid composition of potato tuber cultivars in relation to Ca2+ deficiency. Phytochem 29:2833–2835.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. DeHayes DH (1992) Winter injury and developmental cold tolerance in red spruce. In: Eager C, Adams MB (eds) The Ecology and Decline of Red Spruce in the Eastern United States. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp 296–337.Google Scholar
  14. DeHayes DH, Hawley GJ (1992) Genetic implications in the decline of red spruce. Water Air Soil Pollut 62:233–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. DeHayes DH, Williams MW (1989) Critical Temperature: A Quantitative Method of Assessing Cold Tolerance. Gen Tech Rep NE-134. United States Department of Argiculture (USDA) Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Broomall, PA.Google Scholar
  16. DeHayes DH, Ingle MA, Waite CE (1989) Nitrogen fertilization enhances cold tolerance of red spruce seedlings. Can J For Res 19:1037–1043.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. DeHayes DH, Waite CE, Ingle MA, Williams MW (1990) Winter injury susceptibility and cold tolerance of current and year-old needles of red spruce trees from several provenances. For Sci 36:982–994Google Scholar
  18. DeHayes DH, Thornton FC, Waite CE, Ingle MA (1991) Ambient cloud deposition reduces cold tolerance of red spruce seedlings. Can For Res 21:1292–1295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. DeHayes DH, Schaberg PG, Hawley GJ, Borer CH, Cumming JR, Strimbeck GR (1997) Physiological implications of seasonal variation in membrane-associated calcium in red spruce mesophyll cells. Tree Physiol 17:687–695.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. DeHayes DH, Schaberg PG, Hawley GJ, Strimbeck GR (1999) Acid rain impacts calcium nutrition and forest health. BioScience 49:789–800.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. DeYoe DR, Brown GN (1979) Glycerolipid and fatty acid changes in eastern white pine chloroplast lamellae during the onset of winter. Plant Physiol 64:924–929.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dhindsa RS, Monroy A, Wolfraim L, Dong G (1993) Signal transduction and gene expression during cold acclimation in alfalfa. In: Li PH, Christers-son L (eds) Advances in Plant Cold Hardiness. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp 57–72.Google Scholar
  23. Federer CA, Hornbeck JW, Tritton LM, Martin CW, Pierce RS, Smith CT (1989) Long-term depletion of calcium and other nutrients in eastern US forests. Environ Manage 13:593–601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fink S (1991) The micromorphological distribution of bound calcium in needles of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.). New Phytol 119:33–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fincher J, Cumming JR, Alscher RG, Rubin G, Weinstein L (1989) Long-term ozone exposure affects winter hardiness of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) seedlings. New Phytol 113:85–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fowler D, Cape JN, Deans JD, Leith ID, Murray MB, Smith RI, Sheppard LJ, Unsworth MH (1989) Effects of acid mist on the frost hardiness of red spruce seedlings. New Phytol 113:321–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Friedland AJ, Gregory RA, Karenlampi L, Johnson AH (1984) Winter damage to foliage as a factor in red spruce decline. Can J For Res 14:963–965.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Grusak MA, Minchin PEH (1989) Cold-inhibited phloem translocation in sugar beet. J Exp Bot 40:215–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Guy CL (1990) Cold acclimation and freezing stress tolerance: role of protein metabolism. Ann Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 41:187–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hadley JL, Amundson RG (1992) Effects of radiational heating at low air temperature on water balance, cold tolerance, and visible injury of red spruce foliage. Tree Physiol 11:1–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Hadley JL, Amundson RG, Laurence JA, Kohut RJ (1993) Physiological response to controlled freezing of attached red spruce branches. Environ Exper Bot 33:591–609.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hadley JL, Friedland AJ, Herrick GT, Amundson RG (1991) Winter desiccation and solar radiation in relation to red spruce decline in the northern Appalachians. Can J For Res 21:269–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hadley JL, Manter D, Herrick J (1996) The effects of post-freezing environment on freezing injury to red spruce: implications for cold tolerance testing in conifers. In: Bernier PY (ed) Proceedings of the 14th North American Forest Biology Workshop. 16-20 June, Laval University, Quebec City, Canada. p 106.Google Scholar
  34. Hamburg SP, Cogbill CV (1988) Historical decline of red spruce populations and climatic warming. Nature 331:428–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hanninen H (1991) Does climatic warming increase the risk of frost damage in northern trees? Plant Cell Environ 14:449–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hawkins BJ, Davradou M, Pier D, Shortt R (1995) Frost hardiness and winter photosynthesis of Thuja plicata and Pseudotsuga menziesii seedlings grown at three rates of nitrogen and phosphorus supply. Can J For Res 25:18–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hawley GJ, DeHayes DH (1994) Genetic diversity and population structure of red spruce (Picea rubens). Can J Bot 72:1778–1786.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hedin LO, Granat L, Likens GE, Bulshand TA, Galloway JN, Butler TJ, Rodhe H (1994) Steep declines in atmospheric base cations in regions of Europe and North America. Nature 367:351–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hepler PK, Wayne RO (1985) Calcium and plant development. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 36:397–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Jacobson JS, Heller LI, L’Hirondelle SJ, Lassoie JP (1992) Phenology and cold tolerance of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) seedlings exposed to sulfuric and nitric acid mist. Scand J For Res 7:331–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Johnson AH, Cook ER, Siccama TG (1988) Climate and red spruce growth and decline in the northern Appalachians. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85:5369–5373.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Johnson AH, DeHayes DH, Siccama TG (1996) Role of acid deposition in the decline of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) in the montane forests of Northeastern USA. In: Raychudhuri SP, Maramorosch K (eds) Forest Trees and Palms: Disease and Control. Oxford and IBH, New Delhi, India, pp 49–71.Google Scholar
  43. Johnson AH, Friedland AJ, Dushoff JG (1986) Recent and historic red spruce mortality: evidence of climatic influence. Water Air Soil Pollut 30:319–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Johnson DW, Fernandez IJ (1992) Soil mediated effects of atmospheric deposition on eastern U.S. spruce-fir forests. In: Eager C, Adams MB (eds) The Ecology and Decline of Red Spruce in the Eastern United States. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp 235–270.Google Scholar
  45. Joslin JD, Wolfe MH (1988) Response of red spruce seedlings to changes in soil aluminum in six amended forest soil horizons. Can J For Res 18:1614–1623.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Joslin JD, Wolfe MH (1992) Red spruce soil solution chemistry and root distribution across a cloud water deposition gradient. Can J For Res 22: 893–904.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Joslin JD, McDuffie C, Brewer PF (1988) Acidic cloud water and cation loss from red spruce foliage. Water Air Soil Pollut 39:355–363.Google Scholar
  48. Kellomaki S, Hanninen H, Kolstrom M (1995) Computations on frost damage to Scots pine under climatic warming in boreal conditions. Ecol Applications 5:42–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Klein RM, Perkins TD, Myers HL (1989) Nutrient status and winter hardiness of red spruce foliage. Can J For Res 19:754–758.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Krauchi N (1993) Potential impacts of a climate change on forest ecosystems. Eur J For Path 23:28–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Larcher W, Bauer H (1981) Ecological significance of resistance to low temperature. In: Lange OL, Nobel PS, Osmond CB, Ziegler H (eds) Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology N.S. Vol 12A. Physiological Plant Ecology I. Springer, Berlin, Germany, pp 403–437.Google Scholar
  52. Lawrence GB, David MB, Shortle WC (1995) A new mechanism for calcium loss in forest-floor soils. Nature 378:162–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. L’Hirondelle SJ, Jacobson JS, Lassoie JP (1992) Acid mist and nitrogen fertilization effects on growth, nitrate reductase activity, gas exchange, and frost hardiness of red spruce seedlings. New Phytol 121:611–622.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Likens GE, Driscoll CT, Buso DC (1996) Long-term effects of acid rain: response and recovery of a forest ecosystem. Science 272:244–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Lindberg SE, Lovett GM (1992) Deposition and forest canopy interactions of airborne sulfur: Results from the integrated forest study. Atmos Environ 26a: 1477–1492.Google Scholar
  56. Lorius C, Jouzel J, Raynaud D, Hansen J, LeTrent H (1990) The ice-core record: climate sensitivity and future greenhouse warming. Nature 347:7–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lund AE, Livingston WH (1998) Freezing cycles enhance winter injury in Picea rubens. Tree Physiol 19:65–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. MacCracken M, Cubasch U, Gates WL, Harvey LD, Hunt B, Katz R, Lorenz E, Manabe S, McAvaney B, McFarlane N, Meehl G, Meleshko V, Robock A, Stenchikov G, Stouffer R, Wang W-C, Washington W, Watts R, Zebiak S (1991) A Critical Appraisal of Model Simulations. In: Schlesinger MF (ed) Greenhouse-Gas-Induced Climatic Change: A Critical Appraisal of Simulations and Observations. Developments in Atmospheric Science 19. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp 583–591.Google Scholar
  59. Manter DK, Livingston WH (1996) Influence of thawing rate and fungal infection by Rhizosphaera kalkhoffii on freezing injury in red spruce (Picea rubens) needles. Can J For Res 26:918–927.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Margolis HA (1989) Influence of short-term atmospheric CO2 enrichment on growth, allocation patterns, and biochemistry of black spruce seedlings at different stages of development. Can J For Res 19:733–782.Google Scholar
  61. Margolis HA, Vezina L-P (1990) Atmospheric CO2 enrichment and the development of frost hardiness in containerized black spruce seedlings. Can J For Res 20:1392–1398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Marschner H (1986) Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  63. McLaughlin JW, Fernandez IJ, Richards KJ (1996) Atmospheric deposition to a low-elevation spruce-fir forest, Maine, USA. J Environ Qual 25: 248–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. McLaughlin SB, Kohut RJ (1992) The effects of atmospheric deposition and ozone on carbon allocation and associated physiological processes in red spruce. In: Eager C, Adams MB (eds) The Ecology and Decline of Red Spruce in the Eastern United States. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp 338–382.Google Scholar
  65. McLaughlin SB, Tjoelker MG, Roy WK (1993) Acid deposition alters red spruce physiology: laboratory studies support field observations. Can J For Res 23: 380–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. McLaughlin SB, Anderson CP, Hanson PJ, Tjoelker MG, Roy WK (1991) Increased dark respiration and calcium deficiency of red spruce in relation to acidic deposition at high-elevation southern Appalachian Mountain sites. Can J For Res 21:1234–1244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. McNulty SG, Aber JD, Newman SD (1996) Nitrogen saturation in a high elevation New England spruce-fir stand. For Ecol Manage 84:109–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Mohnen VA (1992) Atmospheric deposition and pollutant exposure of eastern U.S. forests. In: Eager C, Adams MB (eds) The Ecology and Decline of Red Spruce in the Eastern United States. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp 64–124.Google Scholar
  69. Monroy AF, Sarban F, Dhinza RS (1993) Cold-induced changes in freezing tolerance, protein phosphorylation and gene expression: evidence for a role of calcium. Plant Physiol 102:1227–1235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Morgenstern EK (1969) Winter drying of red spruce provenances related to introgressive hybridization with black spruce. Bi-month Res Notes. Can For Serv 25:34–36.Google Scholar
  71. Palta JP, Levitt J, Stadlemann EJ (1977) Freezing injury in onion bulb cells. Plant Physiol 60:393–397.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Palta JP, Li PH (1978) Cell membrane properties in relation to freezing injury. In: Li PH, Sakai A (eds) Plant Cold Hardiness and Freezing Stress. Academic Press, London, England, pp 93–115.Google Scholar
  73. Peart DR, Jones MB, Palmiotto PA (1991) Winter injury to red spruce at Mt. Moosilauke, NH. Can J For Res 21:1380–1389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Perkins TD, Adams GT (1995) Rapid freezing induces winter injury symptomatology in red spruce foliage. Tree Physiol 15:259–266.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Perkins TD, Adams GT, Klein RM (1991) Desiccation or freezing? Mechanisms of winter injury to red spruce foliage. Am J Bot 78:1207–1217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Perkins TD, Adams GT, Lawson S, Hemmerlein MT (1993) Cold tolerance and water content of current-year red spruce foliage over two winter seasons. Tree Physiol 13:119–129.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Perkins TD, Adams GT, Lawson ST, Schaberg PG, McNulty SG (2000) Long-term nitrogen fertilization increases winter injury in montane red spruce (Picea rubens) foliage. J Sustain For 10:200–205.Google Scholar
  78. Pomeroy MK, Andrews CJ (1985) Effects of low temperature and calcium on survival and membrane properties of isolated winter wheat cells. Plant Physiol 78:484–488.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Ramanathan V (1988) The greenhouse theory of climate change: a test by an inadvertent global experiment. Science 240:293–299.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Sakai A, Larcher W (1987) Frost Survival of Plants. Responses and Adaptation to Freezing Stress. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  81. Schaberg PG, Shane JB, Hawley GJ, Strimbeck GR, DeHayes DH, Cali PF, Donnelly JR (1996) Physiological changes in red spruce seedlings during a simulated winter thaw. Tree Physiol 16:567–574.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Schaberg PG, DeHayes DH, Hawley GJ, Strimbeck GR, Murakami PF, Cumming JR, Borer CH (2000a) Acid mist, soil Ca and Al treatments alter the mineral nutrition and physiology of red spruce. Tree Physiol 20: 101–106.Google Scholar
  83. Schaberg PG, Strimbeck GR, Hawley GJ, DeHayes DH, Shane JB, Murakami PF, PerkinsTD, Donnelly JR, Wong BL (2000b) Cold tolerance and photosystem function in a montane red spruce population: physiological relationships with foliar carbohydrates. J Sustain For 10:225–230.Google Scholar
  84. Schaberg PG, Perkins TD, McNulty SG (1997) Effects of chronic low-level N additions on foliar elemental concentrations, morphology, and gas exchange of mature montane red spruce. Can J For Res 27:1622–1629.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Schaberg PG, Shane JB, Cali PF, Donnelly JR, Strimbeck GR (1998) Photosyn-thetic capacity of red spruce during winter. Tree Physiol 18:271–276.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Schaberg PG, Wilkinson RC, Shane JB, Donnelly JR, Cali PF (1995) Winter photosynthesis of red spruce from three Vermont seed sources. Tree Physiol 15:345–350.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Senser M, Beck E (1982) Frost resistance in spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.). V. Influence of photoperiod and temperature on the membrane lipids of needles. Z Pflanzenphysiol B 108:71–85.Google Scholar
  88. Senser M, Beck E (1984) Correlation of chloroplast ultrastructure and membrane lipid composition to the different degrees of frost resistance achieved in leaves of spinach, ivy, and spruce. J Plant Physiol 117:41–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Sheen J (1996) Ca2+-dependent protein kinases and stress signal transduction in plants. Science 274:1900–1902.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Sheppard LJ (1994) Causal mechanisms by which sulphate, nitrate and acidity influence frost hardiness in red spruce: review and hypothesis. New Phytol 127:69–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Sheppard LJ, Cape JN, Leith ID (1993) Acid mist affects dehardening, budburst, and shoot growth in red spruce. For Sci 39:680–691.Google Scholar
  92. Sheppard LJ, Smith RI, Cannell MGR (1989) Frost hardiness of Picea rubens growing in spruce decline regions of the Appalachians. Tree Physiol 5:25–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Shortle WC, Smith KT (1988) Aluminum-induced calcium deficiency syndrome in declining red spruce. Science 240:1017–1018.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Snyder MC (1990) Seasonal patterns of carbohydrate reserves within red spruce seedlings in the Green Mountains of Vermont. Masters thesis, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT.Google Scholar
  95. Steponkus PL (1990) Cold acclimation and freezing injury from a perspective of the plasma membrane. In: Katterman F (ed) Environmental Injury to Plants. Academic Press, New York, pp 1–16.Google Scholar
  96. Strimbeck GR (1997) Cold tolerance and winter injury of montane red spruce. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT.Google Scholar
  97. Strimbeck GR, Johnson AH, Vann DR (1993) Midwinter needle temperature and winter injury of montane red spruce. Tree Physiol 13:131–144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Strimbeck GR, Schaberg PG, DeHayes DH, Shane JB, Hawley GJ (1995) Midwinter dehardening of montane red spruce foliage during a natural thaw. Can J For Res 25:2040–2044.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Strimbeck GR, Vann DR, Johnson AH (1991) In situ experimental freezing produces symptoms of winter injury in red spruce foliage. Tree Physiol 9: 359–367.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Thornton FC, Pier PA, McDuffie C (1990) Response of growth, photosynthesis, and mineral nutrition of red spruce seedlings to O3 and acidic cloud deposition. Environ Exp Bot 30:313–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Tobi DR, Wargo PM, Bergdahl DR (1995) Growth response of red spruce after known periods of winter injury. Can J For Res 25:669–681.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Vann DR, Strimbeck GR, Johnson AH (1992) Effects of ambient levels of airborne chemicals on freezing resistance of red spruce foliage. For Ecol Manage 51:69–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Waite CE, DeHayes DH, Rebbeck J, Schier GA, Johnson AH (1994) The influence of elevated ozone on freezing tolerance of red spruce seedlings. New Phytol 126:327–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Wareing PF, Phillips IDJ (1981) Growth and Differentiation in Plants. Pergamon, New York.Google Scholar
  105. White GJ (1996) Effects of chronic ammonium sulfate treatments on forest trees at the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Maine, Orno, ME.Google Scholar
  106. White PS, Cogbill CV (1992) Spruce-fir forests of Eastern North America. In: Eager C, Adams MB (eds) The Ecology and Decline of Red Spruce in the Eastern United States. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp 3–39.Google Scholar
  107. Wilkinson RC (1990) Effects of winter injury on basal area and height growth of 30-year-old red spruce from 12 provenances growing in northern New Hampshire. Can J For Res 20:1616–1622.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul G. Schaberg
  • Donald H. DeHayes

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations