Forced Circulation for Supercritical or Subcritical Boilers

  • Prabir Basu
  • Cen Kefa
  • Louis Jestin
Part of the Mechanical Engineering Series book series (MES)


The main objective of a good natural circulation design is to have wet steam at the outlet of all the tubes making up the water walls of the combustion chamber. Provided the dry out and critical heat flux are not reached the boiling inside the tube occurs in a nucleate regime, where the heat transfer coefficient is in the range of 1010kW/m2•C. Owing to such high internal heat transfer coefficients, the temperature of the tube walls remains very close to the saturation temperature of the water. This makes the task of material selection and circulation design easy. Another advantage of this natural circulation is that circulation rate increases either when pressure decreases or when heat flux increases. The former enables inherent flow stabilization during load rejection as long as the level of water is correctly controlled in the drum. The latter allows natural uniformity of flows in adjacent tubes receiving different heat fluxes.


Heat Flux Critical Heat Flux Natural Circulation Supercritical Pressure Water Wall 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Prabir Basu
    • 1
  • Cen Kefa
    • 2
  • Louis Jestin
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringTechnical University of Nova ScotiaHalifaxCanada
  2. 2.Institute of Thermal EngineeringZhejiang UniversityHangzhou, ZhejiangChina
  3. 3.Department EquipmentElectricite de FranceVilleurbanneFrance

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