Lizard Contaminant Data for Ecological Risk Assessment

  • Kym Rouse Campbell
  • Todd S. Campbell
Part of the Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology book series (RECT, volume 165)

Abstract

Ecological risk assessments, to be realistic, should include a full complement of the relevant members of the systems being studied. Reptiles are important constituents and comprise a large percentage of the faunal biomass in many terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. They are predators and prey of vertebrates and invertebrates, and their unique life histories make their roles in food webs diverse and important. In addition, reptiles are crucial to the proper functioning of many ecological processes. However, reptiles are rarely included in ecological risk assessments because either contaminant data are not available or they are not considered to be important in ecosystem functions. Certainly, the former lack has been a direct result of the latter opinion. Existing risk assessment schemes lose their predictive value when important taxa, such as reptiles, are missing, especially in risk assessments performed for terrestrial arid ecosystems (van der Valk 1997). Reptiles also are infrequently considered in habitat evaluation and management (Fontenot et aI. 1996). By neglecting reptiles, we evaluate only a portion of the biotic community and cannot fully assess the risks posed by human intervention.

Keywords

Zinc Foam Cadmium Fluoride Vanadium 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Beck AB (1956) The copper content of the liver and blood of some vertebrates. Aust J Zool 4:1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bergeron JM, Crews D, McLachlan JA (1994) PCBs as environmental estrogens: turtle sex determination as a biomarker of environmental contamination. Environ Health Perspect 102:780–781.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Best SM (1973) Some organochlorine pesticide residues in wildlife of the Northern Territory, Australia, 1970–71. Aust J Biol Sci 26:1161–1170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Birks PR, Olsen AM (1987) Pesticide concentrations in some south Australian birds and other fauna. Trans R Soc S Aust 111:67–77.Google Scholar
  5. Bishop CA, Gendron AD (1998) Reptiles and amphibians: shy and sensitive vertebrates of the Great Lakes Basin and St. Lawrence River. Environ Monit Assess 53:225–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brooks GR (1962) Resistance of the ground skink Lygosoma laterale to gamma radia-tion. Herpetologica 18(2):128–129.Google Scholar
  7. Bryan AM, Stone WB, Olafsson PG (1987) Disposition of toxic PCB congeners in snapping turtle eggs: expressed as toxic equivalents of TCDD. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 39:791–796.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bull JJ, Gutzke WHN, Crews D (1988) Sex reversal in estradiol in three reptilian orders. Gen Comp Endrocrinol 70:425–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Burger J, Cooper K, Saliva J, Gochfield D, Lipsky D, Gochfield M (1992) Mercury bioaccumulation in organisms from three Puerto Rican estuaries. Environ Monit Assess 22:181–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chiplonkar JM, Goel SC (1975) Effects of y--rays on the developing embryos of Calotes versicolor. Experientia (Basel) 31:1213–1215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Clark DR Jr, Flickinger EL, White DH, Hothem RL, Belisle AA (1995) Dicofol and DDT residues in lizard carcasses and bird eggs from Texas, Florida, and California. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 54:817–824.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Conant R, Collins JT (1991) A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America. Houghton Mifflin, Boston, MA.Google Scholar
  13. Crain DA, Guillette LJ Jr (1997) Endocrine-disrupting contaminants and reproduction in vertebrate wildlife. Rev Toxicol 1:47–70.Google Scholar
  14. Crain DA, Guillette LJ Jr (1998) Reptiles as models of contaminant-induced endocrine disruption. Anim Reprod Sci 53:77–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Crews D, Bergeron JM, McLachlan JA (1995) The role of estrogen in turtle sex determi-nation and the effect of PCBs. Environ Health Perspect 103(suppl 7):73–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Culley DD, Applegate HG (1967a) Insecticide concentrations in wildlife at Presidio, Texas. Pestic Monit J 1(2):21–28.Google Scholar
  17. Culley DD Jr, Applegate HG (1967b) Pesticides at Presidio. IV. Reptiles, birds, and mammals. Tex J Sci 19:301–310.Google Scholar
  18. Dana SW, Tinkle DW (1965) Effects of X-radiation on the testes of the lizard, Uta stansburiana stejnegeri. Int J Radiat Biol 9:67–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Everts JW (1997) Ecotoxicology for risk assessment in arid zones: some key issues. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 32:1–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fontenot LW, Noblet GP, Platt SG (1996) A survey of herpetofauna inhabiting polychlorinated biphenyl contaminated and reference watersheds in Pickens County, South Carolina. J Elisha Mitchell Sci Soc 112(1):20–30.Google Scholar
  21. Fossi MC, Sanchez-Hernandez JC, Diaz-Diaz R, Lari L, Garcia-Hernandez JE, Gaggi C (1995) The lizard Gallotia galloti as a bioindicator of organophosphorus contamination in the Canary Islands. Environ Pollut 87:289–294.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Frank N, Ramus E (1995) A Complete Guide to Scientific and Common Names of Reptiles and Amphibians of the World. NG Publishing, Pottsville, PA.Google Scholar
  23. French NR (1970) Chronic low-level gamma irradiation of a desert ecosystem for five years. In: Grauby A (ed) Actes du Symposium International de Radioecologie, Centre d’Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache, Cadarache, France, pp 1151–1165.Google Scholar
  24. George KC, Eapen J (1973) Effect of X-irradiation on esterases of tissues of house lizard, Hemidactylus leschenaulti Dum. & Pipr. Indian J Exp Biol 11:76–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Hall RJ (1980) Effects of environmental contaminants on reptiles: a review. Special Scientific Report—Wildlife No. 228. U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  26. Hall RJ, Clark DR Jr (1982) Responses of the iguanid lizard Anolis carolinensis to four organophosphorus pesticides. Environ Pollut Ser A 28:45–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hall RJ, Henry PFP (1992) Assessing effects of pesticides on amphibians and reptiles: status and needs. Herpetol J 2:65–71.Google Scholar
  28. Kaur S (1988) Lead in the scales and cobras and wall lizards from rural and urban areas of Punjab, India. Sci Total Environ 77(2–3):289–290.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kihara H, Yamashita H (1978) Lethal effects of various agricultural chemicals against reptiles (in Japanese). Snake 10:10–15.Google Scholar
  30. Lambert MRK (1993) Effects of DDT ground-spraying against tsetse flies on lizards in NW Zimbabwe. Environ Pollut 82:231–237.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lambert MRK (1997a) Effects of pesticides on amphibians and reptiles in sub-Saharan Africa. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 150:31–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lambert MRK (1997b) Environmental effects of heavy spillage from a destroyed pesticide store near Hargeisa (Somaliland) assessed during the dry season, using reptiles and amphibians as bioindicators. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 32:80–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lance VA, Cort T, Masuoka J, Lawson R, Saltman P (1995) Unusually high zinc concentrations in snake plasma, with observations on plasma zinc concentrations in lizards, turtles and alligators. J Zool Lond 235:577–585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lentic MI, Fox BJ (1997) The impact of industrial fluoride fallout on faunal succession following sand mining of dry sclerophyll forest at Tomago, NSW. I. Lizard recolonisation. Biol Consery 80:63–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Loumbourdis NS (1997) Heavy metal contamination in a lizard, Agama stellio stellio compared in urban, high altitude and agricultural, low altitude areas of north Greece. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 58:945–952.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Mcllroy JC, King DR, Oliver AJ (1985) The sensitivity of Australian animals to 1080 poison. VIII. Amphibians and reptiles. Aust Wildl Res 12:113–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Medica PA, Turner FB, Smith DD (1973) Effects of radiation on a fenced population of horned lizards. J Herpetol 7:79–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Meyers-Schöne L, Walton BT (1994) Turtles as monitors of chemical contaminants in the environment. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 135:93–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Meyers-Schöne L, Shugart LR, Beauchamp JJ, Walton BT (1993) Comparison of two freshwater turtle species as monitors of radionuclide and chemical contamination: DNA damage and residue analysis. Environ Toxicol Chem 12:1487–1496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Nagy KA, Medica PA (1985) Altered energy metabolism in an irradiated population of lizards at the Nevada Test Site. Radiat Res 103:98–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Olafsson PG, Bryan AM, Bush B, Stone W (1983) Snapping turtles–a biological screen for PCBs. Chemosphere 12:1525–1532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Overmann SR, Krajicek JJ (1995) Snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) as biomonitors of lead contamination of the Big River in Missouri’s Old Lead Belt. Environ Toxicol Chem 14:689–695.Google Scholar
  43. Özelmas U, Akay MT (1995) Histopathological investigations of the effects of malathion on dwarf lizards (Lacerta parva Boulenger 1887). Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 55: 730–737.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Pearson AK, Licht P, Nagy KA, Medica PA (1978) Endocrine function and reproductive impairment in an irradiated population of the lizard Uta stansburiana. Radiat Res 76: 610–623.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Pianka ER (1986) Ecology and Natural History of Desert Lizards. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.Google Scholar
  46. Pough FH, Andrews RM, Cadle JE, Crump ML, Savitzky AH, Wells KD (1998) Herpetology. Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.Google Scholar
  47. Qazi JI, Jafri RH (1996) Uptake and concentration of uranium in animals and plants from a natural radioactive terrestrial ecosystem in Pakistan. Punjab Univ J Zool 11: 51–56.Google Scholar
  48. Rodda GI-I, Perry G, Rondeau RI (1999) The densest terrestrial vertebrate. In: Program Book and Abstracts of the Joint Meeting of the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, American Elasmobranch Society, Herpetologists’ League, and Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA, June 24–30, 1999, p 195.Google Scholar
  49. Roughgarden J (1995) Anolis Lizards of the Caribbean: Ecology, Evolution, and Plate Tectonics. Oxford Series in Ecology and Evolution. Oxford University Press, New York, NY.Google Scholar
  50. Sanchez JC, Fossi MC, Focardi S (1997) Serum B esterases as a nondestructive biomarker in the lizard Gallotia galloti experimentally treated with parathion. Environ Toxicol Chem 16:1954–1961.Google Scholar
  51. Saxon JG (1970) The biology of the lizard, Cnemidophorus tesselatus, and effects of pesticides upon the population in the Presidio Basin, Texas. Ph.D. Dissertation, Texas A & M University, College Station, TX.Google Scholar
  52. Schmidt J (1981) Lead and cadmium residues by inner and outer city Lacerta populations (in German). Verh Ges Ökol (Berl) 9:297–300.Google Scholar
  53. Schmidt J (1984) Heavy metal analyses in Hemidactylus mabouia (Geckonidae) as amethod to classify urban environmental quality (in German). Amazoniana 9(1): 35–42.Google Scholar
  54. Schwartz A, Henderson RW (1991) Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies: Descriptions, Distributions, and Natural History. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, FL.Google Scholar
  55. Smith DE, Thomson JF (1959) Physiological and biochemical studies on various species exposed to massive X-irradiation. Radiat Res 11:198–205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Stebbins RC (1985) A Field Guide to Western Amphibians and Reptiles. Houghton Mifflin, Boston, MA.Google Scholar
  57. Suresh B, Hiradhar PK (1990) Toxicity of NaF on tail regeneration in gekkonid lizard Hemidactylus flaviviridis. Indian J Exp Biol 28:1086–1087.Google Scholar
  58. Tanner WW (1965) A comparative population study of small vertebrates in the uranium areas of the Upper Colorado River Basin of Utah. Brigham Young University Science Bulletin, Biological Series—Vol. VII, No. 1. Brighman Young University, UT.Google Scholar
  59. Tinkle DW (1965) Effects of radiation on the natality, density and breeding structure of a natural population of lizards, Uta stansburiana. Health Phys 11:1595–1599.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Tousignant A, Crews D (1994) Effects of exogenous estradiol applied at different embryonic stages on sex determination, growth, and mortality in the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius). J Exp Zool 268:17–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Turner FB (1975) Effects of continuous irradiation on animal populations. Adv Radiat Biol 5:83–144.Google Scholar
  62. Turner FB, Gist CS (1965) Influences of a thermonuclear cratering test on close-in populations of lizards. Ecology 46:845–852.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Turner FB, CS Gist (1970) Observations of lizards and tree frogs in an irradiated Puerto Rican forest. In: Odum HT, Pigeon RF (eds) A tropical rain forest, a study of irradiation and ecology at El Verde, Puerto Rico. TID-24270. U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Division of Technical Information, Oak Ridge, TN, pp E-25–CE-49.Google Scholar
  64. Turner FB, Lannom JR Jr (1968) Radiation doses sustained by lizards in a continuously irradiated natural enclosure. Ecology 49:548–551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Turner FB, Medica PA (1977) Sterility among female lizards (Uta stansburiana) exposed to continuous y irradiation. Radiat Res 70:154–163.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Turner FB, Hoddenbach GA, Lannom JR Jr (1965) Growth of lizards in natural populations exposed to gamma irradiation. Health Phys 11:1585–1593.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Turner FB, Lannom JR, Kania HJ, Kowalewsky BW (1967) Acute gamma irradiation experiments with the lizard Uta stansburiana. Radiat Res 31:27–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Turner FB, Medica PA, Lannom JR Jr, Hoddenbach GA (1969) A demographic analysis of continuously irradiated and nonirradiated populations of the lizard, Uta stansburiana. Radiat Res 38:349–356.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Turner FB, Licht P, Thrasher JD, Medica PA, Lannom JR Jr (1973) Radiation-induced sterility in natural populations of lizards (Crotophytus wislizenii and Cnemidophorus tigris). In: Nelson DJ (ed) Radionuclides in Ecosystems. Proceedings of the Third National Symposium on Radioecology, May 10–12, 1971, Oak Ridge, TN, pp 1131–1143.Google Scholar
  70. Twigg LE, Mead RJ (1990) Comparative metabolism of, and sensitivity to, fluoroacetate in geographically separated populations of Tiliqua rugosa (Gray) (Scincidae). Aust J Zool 37:617–626.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Twigg LE, King DR, Bradley AJ (1988) The effect of sodium monofluoroacetate on plasma testosterone concentration in Tiliqua rugosa (Gray). Comp Biochem Physiol 91C:343–347.Google Scholar
  72. van der Valk HCHG (1997) Community structure and dynamics in desert ecosystems: potential implications for insecticide risk assessment. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 32:11–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Walker CH, Ronis MJJ (1989) The monooxygenases of birds, reptiles and amphibians. Xenobiotica 19(10):1111–1121.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Wheeler WB, Jouvenaz DP, Wojcik DP, Banks WA, Van Middelem CH, Lofgren CS, Nesbitt S, Williams L, Brown R (1977) Mirex residues in nontarget organisms after application of 10–5 bait for fire ant control, Northeast Florida-1972–74. Pestic Monit J 11:146–156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. White DH, Krynitsky AJ (1986) Wildlife in some areas of New Mexico and Texas accumulate elevated DDE residues, 1983. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 15:149–157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Wibbels T, Crews D (1994) Putative aromatase inhibitor induces male sex determination in a female unisexual lizard and in a turtle with temperature-dependent sex determination. J Endocrinol 141:295–299.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Wojcik DP, Banks WA, Wheeler WB, Jouvenaz DP, Van Middelem CH, Lofgren CS (1975) Mirex residues in nontarget organisms after application of experimental baits for fire ant control, Southwest Georgia-1971–1972. Pestic Monit J 9:124–133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Wright JW, Vitt LJ (1993) Biology of Whiptail Lizards (Genus Cnemidophorus). Oklahoma Museum of Natural History, Norman, OK.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kym Rouse Campbell
    • 1
  • Todd S. Campbell
    • 2
  1. 1.The Cadmus Group, Inc.Oak RidgeUSA
  2. 2.Department of Ecology and Evolutionary BiologyUniversity of TennesseeKnoxvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations