Equations of Plasma Physics
A plasma is a gas of charged particles under conditions where collective electromagnetic interactions dominate over interactions between individual particles. Plasmas have been called the fourth state of matter . As one adds heat to a solid, it undergoes a phase transition (melting) to become a liquid. More heat causes the liquid to boil into a gas. Adding still more energy causes the gas to ionize (i.e. some of the negative electrons become dissociated from their gas atoms, leaving positively charged ions). Above 100,000 °K, most matter ionizes into a plasma. While the earth is a relatively plasma-free bubble (aside from fluorescent lights, lightning discharges, and magnetic fusion energy experiments) 99.9% of the universe is in the plasma state (e.g. stars and most of interstellar space).
KeywordsEntropy Vortex Manifold Vorticity Alan
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- Some general references on plasma physics are: Introductory: F. Chen, Introduction to Plasma Physics, Plenum, New York (1974). More Advanced: P.C. Clemmow and J.P. Dougherty, Electrodynamics of Particles and Plasmas, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass. (1969). N. Krall and A. Trivelpiece, Principles of Plasma Physics. McGraw-Hill, New York, (1973). G. Schmidt, Physics of High Temperature Plasmas, Academic Press, New York, (1979). S. Ichimaru, Basic Principles of Plasma Physics, W.A. Benjamin, Inc., Reading, Mass. (1973). R.C. Davidson, Methods in Nonlinear Plasma Theory, Academic Press, New York, (1972).Google Scholar
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