Long-term Sequelae of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease: Tubal Factor Infertility, Ectopic Pregnancy, and Chronic Pelvic Pain

  • Joan M. Chow
  • Julius Schachter


In pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) there is a process of tissue destruction and scarring that, in the absence of aggressive treatment, may lead to irrevocable changes in fallopian tubal morphology. The implications for subsequent fertility have been recognized since the last century. Women with untreated or inadequately treated pelvic infections due to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are less fertile.1 With the use of follow-up studies, three major sequelae of symptomatic PID have been identified: tubal factor infertility (TFI), ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain.2–4 Results from seroepidemiological studies have associated similar sequelae with “silent” or unrecognized PID.5 Animal models of PID pathogenesis have also provided some additional data on the development of sequelae. The considerable physical and economic cost ($1 billion in the United States in 1990) associated with these sequelae further justifies greater efforts to develop intervention strategies to prevent PID.6


Ectopic Pregnancy Chlamydia Trachomatis Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Chronic Pelvic Pain Neisseria Gonorrhoeae 
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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joan M. Chow
  • Julius Schachter

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