Insulin Gene Structure and Regulation

  • Michael S. German


In the 70 years since Banting and Best extracted insulin from a dog’s pancreas (1), it has become the best studied of the peptide hormones. Insulin was the first protein for which the complete amino acid sequence was determined, and it was the first peptide hormone molecularly cloned. Insulin has been found throughout the animal world. It functions as a hormone in animals as divergent as sponges, flies, and humans, with very little sequence change over the one-and-a-half billion years this divergence represents.


Insulin Gene Insulinoma Cell IGF2 Gene Insulin Promoter Negative Regulatory Element 
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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

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  • Michael S. German

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