Underactuated Systems

  • Warren E. Dixon
  • Aman Behal
  • Darren M. Dawson
  • Siddharth P. Nagarkatti
Part of the Control Engineering book series (CONTRENGIN)


The engineering systems described in the previous chapters are fully actuated (the number of control inputs (actuators) equal the number of degrees of freedom). However, because of actuator failures or various construction constraints some applications are underactuated (the degrees of freedom exceed the number of control inputs). Underactuated systems present challenging control problems since the control design must typically exploit some coupling between the unactuated states and the actuated states to achieve the control objective. In the subsequent sections, the particular control issues related to the underactuated nature of several engineering applications are examined.


Tracking Error Inverted Pendulum Overhead Crane Crane System Satellite Kinematic 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Warren E. Dixon
    • 1
  • Aman Behal
    • 2
  • Darren M. Dawson
    • 2
  • Siddharth P. Nagarkatti
    • 3
  1. 1.Engineering Science and Technology DivisionOak Ridge National LaboratoryOak RidgeUSA
  2. 2.Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringClemson UniversityClemsonUSA
  3. 3.Advanced Technology GroupMKS InstrumentsMethuenUSA

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