Cardiac Pacemakers

  • Constancia F. C. Macatangay


Currently, three approaches to permanent cardiac pacing are in common use. Single-chamber pacemaker is a device wherein one pacing lead is implanted in either the right atrium or right ventricle. Dual-chamber pacemaker has two pacing leads, one in the right ventricle and one in the right atrium, this is the most commonly used type of pacemaker. Biventricular pacemaker or cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is a device wherein in addition to single- or dual-chamber right heart pacing leads, a third lead is advanced to the coronary sinus for left ventricular epicardial pacing.


Pacemaker Conduction abnormality Heart block Pulse generator 


  1. 1.
    Epstein AE, DiMarco JP, Ellenbogen KA, Freedman RA, Silka MJ, et al. ACC/AHA/HRS 2008 guidelines for device-based therapy of cardiac rhythm abnormalities: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Association task force of practice guideline. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013;61(3):e6–75.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
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    Brignole M, Auricchio A, Baron-Esquivias G, Bordachar P, Boriani G, Vardaas PE, et al. 2013 ESC guidelines on cardiac pacing and cardiac resynchronization therapy: the task force on cardiac pacing and resynchronization therapy of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Developed in collaboration with the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA). Europace. 2013;15(8):1070–118.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Jeffrey L. Williams and Robert T. Stevenson (2012). Complications of Pacemaker Implantation, Current Issues and Recent Advances in Pacemaker Therapy, Dr. Attila Roka (Ed.), InTech, DOI: 10.5772/48682.

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.New YorkUSA

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