Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome

Part of the Molecular and Integrative Toxicology book series (MOLECUL)


Diabetes is one of the major health challenges in the United States and worldwide. There are ~8.3 % of Americans have diabetes, with type 2 diabetes accounts for 95 % of the cases. Both human and animal studies have suggested that air pollution is an important environmental risk factor for diabetes and metabolic syndrome. However, the underlying mechanism are largely unknown. Recent studies indicate multiple system and mechanisms involved in this process. In this chapter, we will summarize both epidemiological and experimental evidence showing the promotive effect of air pollution on diabetes.


Air pollution PM2.5 Diabetes Metabolic disease Insulin resistance 



This work was supported by a grant from US EPA (R834797) and grants from NIH (RO1 ES015146, R01ES017290 and R21 DK088522).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xiaoquan Rao
    • 1
  • Cuiqing Liu
    • 2
    • 3
  • Sanjay Rajagopalan
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of MedicineUniversity of Maryland School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Davis Heart and Lung Research InstituteThe Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA
  3. 3.Department of Physiology, Medical CollegeHangzhou Normal UniversityHangzhouChina

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