Contrast-Induced Nephropathy Post Percutaneous Interventional Procedures
CIN is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, prolonged hospitalization, and increased healthcare costs. It is the third leading cause of hospital-acquired renal failure. The incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) after cardiac catheterization reported in literature is 3–22 % [1–3]. CIN has been shown to be associated with additional morbidity, mortality, and increased healthcare costs [1, 2]. Although the mechanism for CIN is not understood, several mechanisms have been implicated in the pathogenesis of this complex phenomenon including direct cytotoxic effects of the contrast agents, ischemic injury due to renal vasoconstriction, decreases in renal medullary blood flow, auto- and paracrine effects (including adenosine, endothelin, and reactive oxygen species activity), oxidative stress, and cellular apoptosis . Risk stratification prior to catheterization perhaps can help identify patients at high risk for CIN.
KeywordsAcute Kidney Injury Cardiac Catheterization Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Acute Decompensated Heart Failure Aminoglycoside Antibiotic
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