Simulation and Training in Minimal Access Surgery

  • Alexander Harris
  • Fernando Bello
  • Roger Kneebone


This chapter summarises the increasingly important role that simulation has to play in the training of surgeons in minimal access surgery.

This chapter defines commonly encountered terms from the simulation literature, describes the relevance of simulation to modern surgical practice, examines the evidence for and against the different types of simulators currently used in surgical simulation training, and considers the practicalities of adopting such an approach. The chapter concludes with an exploration of potential future directions in a rapidly evolving field.


Surgical Simulation Surgical Simulators Fidelity Validity Reliability Virtual Reality Silicone Models Cadaveric Models (Animal and Human) Hybrid Models Physical and Temporal Context 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexander Harris
    • 1
  • Fernando Bello
    • 1
  • Roger Kneebone
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Engagement and Simulation ScienceImperial College LondonLondonUK

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