Application of Analytical Chemistry in the Production of Liquid Biofuels

Chapter
Part of the Lecture Notes in Energy book series (LNEN, volume 27)

Abstract

Analytical techniques are vital for the development of new added-value materials and products from biomass, such as liquid biofuels, by evaluating the quality and chemical composition of the raw materials and all materials and byproducts in the production process. This also enables the evaluation and implementation of environmental laws and better understanding of the economics of new biomass processes. Different analytical techniques are applied to different biomass feedstocks, such as sugarcane, soybean, corn, forests, pulp and paper, waste and agricultural residues, dependent on the final end biofuel product. This chapter highlights how the use of analytical chemistry can be used as a tool to ensure quality and sustainability of the biomass and liquid biofuels, with, some aspects of green analysis also considered.

Keywords

Differential Scanning Calorimetry Sugarcane Bagasse Sweet Sorghum International Energy Agency Clostridium Acetobutylicum 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Amenta S, Garrigues S, De la Guardia M (2008) Conversion of biomass to selected chemical products. TrAC, Trends Anal Chem 27:1538–1558Google Scholar
  2. Anastas PT, Warner JC (1998) Green chemistry: theory and practice. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. Artiga P, González F, Mosquera-Corral A, Campos JL, Garrido JM, Ficara E, Méndez R (2005) Multiple analyses reprogrammable titration analyser for the kinetic characterisation of nitrifying and autotrophic denitrifying biomass. Biochem Eng J 26:176–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Atkinson GF (1982) Introducing the analytical perspective. J Chem Educ 59:201–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Balat M, Balat H (2009) Recent trends in global production and utilization of bio-ethanol fuel. Appl Energy 86:2273–2282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brazilian National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels (2008) Resolution n. 7. ANP, BrasíliaGoogle Scholar
  7. Chang ACC, Chang H-F, Lin FJ, Lin K-H, Chen C-H (2011) Biomass gasification for hydrogen production. Int J Hydrogen Energy 36:14252–14260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Charles AL, Sriroth K, Huang T-C (2005) Proximate composition, mineral contents, hydrogen cyanide and phytic acid of 5 cassava genotypes. Food Chem 92:615–620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Everard CD, McDonnell KP, Fagan CC (2012) Prediction of biomass gross calorific values using visible and near infrared spectroscopy. Biomass Bioenergy 45:203–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Faria S, Petkowicz CLO, De Morais SAL, Terrones MGH, De Resende MM, De França FP, Cardoso VL (2011) Characterization of xanthan gum produced from sugar cane broth. Carbohydr Plym 86:469–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Feng ZV, Buchman JT (2012) Instrumental analysis of biodiesel content in commercial diesel blends: an experiment for undergraduate analytical chemistry. J Chem Educ 89:1561–1563Google Scholar
  12. Gallezot P (2012) Conversion of biomass to selected chemical products. Chem Soc Rev 41:1538–1558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Goldemberg J, Coelho ST, Guardabassi P (2008) The sustainability of ethanol production from sugarcane. Energy Policy 36:2086–2097CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Grafton RQ, Kompas T, Long NV (2012) Substitution between biofuels and fossil fuels: Is there a green paradox? J Environ Econ Manag 64:328–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gunstone FD (2004) The chemistry of oils and fats—sources, composition, properties and uses. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  16. Hu TQ (ed) (2008) Characterization of lignocellulosic materials. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  17. International Energy Agency (2013) Technology roadmaps—biofuels for transport. IEA, ParisGoogle Scholar
  18. Jang Y-S, Park JM, Choi S, Choi YJ, Seung DY, Cho JH, Lee SY (2012) Engineering of microorganisms for the production of biofuels and perspectives based on systems metabolic engineering approaches. Biotechnol Adv 30:989–1000CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kanaujia PK, Sharma YK, Agrawal UC, Garg MO (2013) Analytical approaches to characterizing pyrolysis oil from biomass. TrAC, Trends Anal Chem 42:125–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Leung DYC, Wu X, Leung MKH (2010) A review on biodiesel production using catalyzed transesterification. Appl Energy 87:1083–1095CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Liu Q, Tarn R, Lynch D, Skjodt NM (2007) Physicochemical properties of dry matter and starch from potatoes grown in Canada. Food Chem 105:897–907CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Llamas A, García-Martínez M-J, Al-Lal A-M, Canoira L, Lapuerta M (2012) Biokerosene from coconut and palm kernel oils: production and properties of their blends with fossil kerosene. Fuel 102:483–490Google Scholar
  23. Lu C, Zhao J, Yang S-T, Wei D (2012) Fed-batch fermentation for n-butanol production from cassava bagasse hydrolysate in a fibrous bed bioreactor with continuous gas stripping. Bioresour Technol 104:380–387Google Scholar
  24. Mamma D, Chistakopoulus P, Koullas D, Kekos D, Macris BJ, Koukios E (1995) An alternative approach to the bioconversion of sweet sorghum carbohydrates to ethanol. Biomass Bioenergy 8:99–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Meher LC, Sagar DV, Naik SN (2006) Technical aspects of biodiesel production by transesterification—a review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 10:248–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mischnick P, Momcilovic D (2010) Chemical structure analysis of starch and cellulose derivatives. Adv Carbohydr Chem Biochem 64:117–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Norse D (2012) Low carbon agriculture: objectives and policy pathways. Environ Dev 1:25–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Orts WJ, Holtman KM, Seiber JN (2008) Agricultural chemistry and bioenergy. J Agric Food Chem 56:3892–3899CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Oh PP, Lau HLN, Chen J, Chong MF, Choo YM (2012) A review on conventional technologies and emerging process intensification (PI) methods for biodiesel production. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 16:5131–5145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Rathmann R, Szklo A, Schaeffer R (2010) Land use and completion for production of food and liquid biofuels: an analysis of the arguments in the current debate. Renew Energy 35:14–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sandhu KS, Singh N, Malhi NS (2007) Some properties of corn grains and their flours I: physicochemical, functional and chapatti-making property of flours. Food Chem 101:938–946CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Scarlat N, Dallemand J-F (2011) Recent developments of biofuels/bioenergy sustainability certification: a global overview. Energy Policy 39:1630–1646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Seixo J, Varela MH, Coutinho JAP, Coelho MAZ (2004) Influence of C/N ratio on autotrophic biomass development in a sequencing batch reactor. Biochem Eng J 21:131–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sluiter JB, Ruiz RO, Scarlata CJ, Sluiter AD, Templeton DW (2010) Compositional analysis of lignocellulosic feedstocks. 1. Review and description of methods. J Agric Food Chem 58:9043–9053CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Shuo C, Aita GM (2013) Enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol yields of combined surfactant and dilute ammonia treated sugarcane bagasse. Bioresour Technol 131:357–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Takeuchi RM, Santos AL, Padilha PM, Stradiotto NR (2007) Copper determination in ethanol fuel by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry at a solid paraffin-based carbon paste electrode modified with 2-aminothiazole organofunctionalized silica. Talanta 71:771–777CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Vassilev SV, Baxter D, Andersen LK, Vassileva CG, Morgan TJ (2012) An overview of the organic and inorganic phase composition of biomass. Fuel 94:1–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (EMBRAPA)BrasiliaBrazil
  2. 2.Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ)Rio de JaneiroBrazil

Personalised recommendations