CNS Infections pp 299-327 | Cite as

The Neurological Spectrum of HIV Infection

  • Iñigo CorralEmail author
  • Carmen Quereda


Neurological manifestations are frequent in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients and represent a great diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. They may be caused by many different mechanisms: the HIV, opportunistic infections or tumors, autoimmunity, and complications of systemic diseases or drugs, including the antiretrovirals. Patients may suffer several simultaneous neurological diseases, and the HIV and some opportunistic infections may affect simultaneously various levels in the nervous system. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has produced a decline in opportunistic diseases and neurological disorders associated with severe immune depression. However, the prolonged survival of patients has increased morbidity due to chronic disorders, such as cerebrovascular disease and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. The central nervous system constitutes a reservoir for HIV replication in patients with controlled systemic disease. HAART itself is related to new emerging neurological problems: the specific neurotoxicity of the drugs and the appearance of neurological immune reconstitution inflammatory syndromes.


Human immunodeficiency virus HIV-associated dementia HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndromes Toxoplasma encephalitis Primary central nervous system lymphoma Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy Antiretroviral therapy Cryptococcus 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeurologyRamón y Cajal HospitalMadridSpain
  2. 2.Department of Infectious DiseasesRamón y Cajal HospitalMadridSpain

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