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Scales for Measuring Parkinsonism in Demented Patients

  • Carmen Rodriguez-Blazquez
  • Anna Sauerbier
  • K. Ray Chaudhuri
  • Pablo Martinez-Martin
Chapter

Abstract

The term “parkinsonism” refers to a syndrome combining motor symptoms such as bradykinesia, rigidity, tremor, and other clinical signs characteristic of Parkinson’s disease. A large range of these disorders can simultaneously express parkinsonism and dementia, although with variable occurrence particularly related to the onset of disease and expression of clinical symptoms. Therefore, motor and cognitive assessment in these conditions are relevant, for both clinical research and practice. Most of the rating scales applied in this situation are measures coming from the realm of the movement disorders, used for evaluation of Parkinson’s disease, multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, etc. Also, there are generic scales designed for assessment of motor state that may be useful in the appropriate context. Some of the most frequently used scales are reviewed in this chapter, with particular attention to their description and basic clinimetric properties.

Keywords

Rating scales Assessment Parkinsonism Parkinson’s disease Progressive supranuclear palsy Multiple system atrophy Dementia Dementia with Lewy bodies Dementia associated with Parkinson’s disease Alzheimer’s disease 

Abbreviations

AD

Alzheimer’s disease

DLB

Dementia with Lewy bodies

ESRS

Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale

FAST

Functional Assessment Staging

ICARS

International Cerebellar Ataxia Rating Scale

MDS-UPDRS

Movement Disorder Society-sponsored version of the UPDRS

MSA

Multiple system atrophy

NNIPPS-PPS

Natural History and Neuroprotection in Parkinson Plus Syndromes – Parkinson Plus Scale

PD

Parkinson’s disease

PDD

Dementia associated with Parkinson’s disease

PEPS

Pyramidal and Extrapyramidal Scale

PIGD

Postural instability gait difficulty

POS-PP

Palliative Care Outcome Scale-Parkinsonism Plus

PSP

Progressive supranuclear palsy

PSPRS

Progressive Supranuclear Palsy Rating Scale

RSGE-CD

Rating Scale for Gait Evaluation in Cognitive Deterioration

SCOPA

Scales for Outcomes in Parkinson’s Disease

UMSARS

Unified Multiple System Atrophy Rating Scale

UPDRS

Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carmen Rodriguez-Blazquez
    • 4
  • Anna Sauerbier
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • K. Ray Chaudhuri
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Pablo Martinez-Martin
    • 5
  1. 1.National Parkinson Foundation International Centre of Excellence, King’s College LondonLondonUK
  2. 2.National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Mental Health Biomedical Research Centre and Dementia Unit at South LondonLondonUK
  3. 3.Department of NeurologyMaudsley NHS Foundation TrustLondonUK
  4. 4.Department of Applied EpidemiologyNational Centre of Epidemiology and Centre for Networked Biomedical Research on Neurodegenerative Diseases (CIBERNED), Carlos III Institute of HealthMadridSpain
  5. 5.Research UnitAlzheimer Centre Reina Sofi a Foundation and Centre for Networked Biomedical Research on Neurodegenerative Diseases (CIBERNED), CIEN-Foundation, Carlos III Institute of HealthMadridSpain

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