Size Effects in Micro-scaled Plastic Deformation

Chapter
Part of the Springer Series in Advanced Manufacturing book series (SSAM)

Abstract

Microforming, the so-called micro-scaled plastic deformation, is to fabricate the parts or part features with the dimensions in submillimeter scale. The process has great potential to become a promising micromanufacturing method for its unique characteristics for fabrication of micro-formed parts [1]. Although a comprehensive macroforming knowledge system to support the design of process, tooling, and the metal forming part has been well established and widely used [2, 3, 4, 5, 6], and the development of microparts by microforming, however, cannot totally be based on the traditional macroforming knowledge and the design and development paradigm of macro-formed parts as the size effect affected deformation behaviors and process performance in microforming are different from the ones in macroforming [7, 8, 9]. In microforming, the material deformation behavior is characterized by a few grains in the deformation zone. Different properties of grains make the deformation behavior inhomogeneous and difficult to predict. In addition, there are interactive effects between workpiece size and microstructure on flow stress, flow behavior, fracture behavior, elastic recovery, and surface roughening, etc. These size effect-related deformation phenomena further affect the performance of microforming system and product quality in terms of deformation load, stability of forming system, defect formation, dimensional accuracy, surface finish, and the mechanical properties of the micro-formed parts. This chapter aims at discussing the size effect-related deformation behaviors and the newly identified phenomena, which will help understand the mechanisms and fundamentals of the size effects in microforming processes.

Keywords

Nickel Recrystallization Arena 

References

  1. 1.
    Engel U, Eckstein R (2002) Microforming—from basic research to its realization. J Mater Process Technol 125:35–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chan WL, Fu MW, Lu J, Chan LC (2009) Simulation-enabled study of folding defect formation and avoidance in axisymmetrical flanged components. J Mater Process Technol 209(11):5077–5086CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chan WL, Fu MW, Lu J (2010) FE simulation-based folding defect prediction and avoidance in forging of axially symmetrical flanged components. J Manufact Sci Eng Trans ASME 132(5)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fu MW, Li H, Lu J, Lu SQ (2009) Numerical study on the deformation behaviors of the flexible die forming by using viscoplastic pressure-carrying medium. Comput Mater Sci 46(4):1058–1068CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fu MW, Lu J, Chan WL (2009) Die fatigue life improvement through the rational design of metal-forming system. J Mater Process Technol 209(2):1074–1084CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fu MW, Yong MS, Tong KK, Muramatsu T (2006) A methodology for evaluation of metal forming system design and performance via CAE simulation. Int J Prod Res 44(6):1075–1092CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Vollertsen F, Biermann D, Hansen HN, Jawahir IS, Kuzman K (2009) Size effects in manufacturing of metallic components. Cirp Ann Manuf Technol 58(2):566–587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Messner A, Engel U, Kals R, Vollertsen F (1994) Size effect in the Fe-simulation of micro-forming processes. J Mater Process Technol 45(1–4):371–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Vollertsen F, Hu Z, Niehoff HS, Theiler C (2004) State of the art in micro forming and investigations into micro deep drawing. J Mater Process Technol 151(1–3):70–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Geiger M, Vollertsen F, Kals R (1996) Fundamentals on the manufacturing of sheet metal microparts. CIRP Ann ManufTechnol 45(1):277–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Geiger M, Meßner A, Engel U (1997) Production of microparts—size effects in bulk metal forming, similarity theory. Prod Eng Res Devel 4(1):55–58Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Barbier C, Thibaud S, Richard F, Picart P (2009) Size effects on material behavior in microforming. Int J Mater Form 2:625–628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Raulea LV, Govaert LE, Baaijens FPT (1999) Grain and specimen size effects in processing metal sheets. In: Sixth international conference on technology of plasticity. Springer, NurembergGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chen FK, Tsai JW (2006) A study of size effect in micro-forming with micro-hardness tests. J Mater Process Technol 177(1–3):146–149CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Liu JG, Fu MW, Lu J, Chan WL (2011) Influence of size effect on the springback of sheet metal foils in micro-bending. Comput Mater Sci 50(9):2604–2614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chan WL, Fu MW, Lu J (2011) The size effect on micro deformation behaviour in micro-scale plastic deformation. Mater Des 32(1):198–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Vollertsen F, Niehoff HS, Hu Z (2006) State of the art in micro forming. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 46(11):1172–1179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Meyers MA, Ashworth E (1982) A Model for the Effect of Grain-Size on the Yield Stress of Metals. Phil Mag Phys Condens A Matter Struct Defects Mech Prop 46(5):737–759Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kim GY, Ni J, Koc M (2007) Modeling of the size effects on the behavior of metals in microscale deformation processes. J Manuf Sci Eng Trans ASME 129(3):470–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mahabunphachai S, Koc M (2008) Investigation of size effects on material behavior of thin sheet metals using hydraulic bulge testing at micro/meso-scales. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 48(9):1014–1029CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Chan WL, Fu MW, Yang B (2012) Experimental studies of the size effect affected microscale plastic deformation in micro upsetting process. Mater Sci Eng A 534:374–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hug E, Keller C (2010) Intrinsic Effects due to the Reduction of Thickness on the Mechanical Behavior of Nickel Polycrystals. Metall Mater Trans A Phys Metall Mater Sci 41A(10):2498–2506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Petch NJ (1953) The cleavage strength of polycrystals. J Iron Steel Inst 174(1):25–28Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hall EO (1951) The deformation and ageing of mild Steel III—discussion of results. Proc Phys Soc London Sect B 64(381):747–753CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Armstrong R, Douthwaite RM, Codd I, Petch NJ (1962) Plastic deformation of polycrystalline aggregates. Phil Mag 7(73):45–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gau JT, Principe C, Wang JW (2007) An experimental study on size effects on flow stress and formability of aluminum and brass for microforming. J Mater Process Technol 184(1–3):42–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Miyazaki S, Shibata K, Fujita H (1979) Effect of specimen thickness on mechanical-properties of polycrystalline aggregates with various grain sizes. Acta Metall 27(5):855–862CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Gau JT, Principe C, Yu M (2007) Springback behavior of brass in micro sheet forming. J Mater Process Technol 191(1–3):7–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hansen N (2005) Boundary strengthening over five length scales. Adv Eng Mater 7(9):815–821CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Chan WL, Fu MW (2012) Studies of the interactive effect of specimen and grain sizes on the plastic deformation behavior in microforming. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 62(9):989–1000Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hirth JP (1972) Influence of grain-boundaries on mechanical properties. Metall Trans 3(12):3047–3067CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Mecking H (1979) Deformation of polycrystals. In: Haasen P, Gerold V, Kostorz G (eds) Proceedings of the 5th international conference on the strength of metals and alloys, 1979, Aachen, Federal Republic of Germany, Pergamon, pp 1573–1594Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Feaugas X (1999) On the origin of the tensile flow stress in the stainless steel AISI 316L at 300 K: Back stress and effective stress. Acta Mater 47(13):3617–3632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kocks UF (1976) Laws for Work-Hardening and Low-Temperature Creep. J Eng Mater Technol Trans ASME 98(1):76–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kocks UF (1970) Relation between polycrystal deformation and single-crystal deformation. Metall Trans 1(5):1121–1143Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Voigt W (1889) Ueber die Beziehung zwischen den beiden Elasticitätsconstanten isotroper Körper. Ann Phys 274(12):573–587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Benson DJ, Fu HH, Meyers MA (2001) On the effect of grain size on yield stress: extension into nanocrystalline domain. Mater Sci Eng A Struct Mater Prop Microstruct Process 319:854–861CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Fu HH, Benson DJ, Meyers MA (2001) Analytical and computational description of effect of grain size on yield stress of metals. Acta Mater 49(13):2567–2582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Van Swygenhoven H, Spaczer M, Caro A (1999) Microscopic description of plasticity in computer generated metallic nanophase samples: a comparison between Cu and Ni. Acta Mater 47(10):3117–3126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Gleiter H (2000) Nanostructured materials: basic concepts and microstructure. Acta Mater 48(1):1–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Schiøtz J, Di Tolla FD, Jacobsen KW (1998) Softening of nanocrystalline metals at very small grain sizes. Nature 391(6667):561–563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kim HS (1998) A composite model for mechanical properties of nanocrystalline materials. Scripta Mater 39(8):1057–1061CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Carsley JE, Ning J, Milligan WW, Hackney SA, Aifantis EC (1995) A simple, mixtures-based model for the grain-size dependence of strength in nanophase metals. Nanostruct Mater 5(4):441–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Zhou JQ, Li ZH, Zhu RT, Li YL, Zhang ZZ (2008) A mixtures-based model for the grain size dependent mechanical behavior of nanocrystalline materials. J Mater Process Technol 197(1–3):325–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Drucker DC (1950) Some implications of work hardening and ideal plasticity. Q Appl Math 7:411–418MATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Donovan PE (1989) A yield criterion for Pd40Ni40P20 metallic glass. Acta Metall 37(2):445–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Jiang B, Weng GJ (2004) A generalized self-consistent polycrystal model for the yield strength of nanocrystalline materials. J Mech Phys Solids 52(5):1125–1149CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Jiang B, Weng GJ (2004) A theory of compressive yield strength of nano-grained ceramics. Int J Plast 20(11):2007–2026CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Reuss A (1929) Berechnung der Fließgrenze von Mischkristallen auf Grund der Plastizitätsbedingung für Einkristalle. ZAMM—J Appl Math Mech/Zeitschrift für Angewandte Mathematik und Mechanik 9(1):49–58CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Geiger M, Kleiner M, Eckstein R, Tiesler N, Engel U (2001) Microforming. Cirp Annal Manuf Technol 50(2):445–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Kals R, Pucher HJ, Vollertsen F (1995) Effects of specimen size and geometry in metal forming. In: 2nd international conference on advances in materials and processing technologies, DublinGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Shen Y, Yu HP, Ruan XY (2006) Discussion and prediction on decreasing flow stress scale effect. Trans Nonferrous Metal Soc China 16(1):132–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Peng LF, Lai XM, Lee HJ, Song JH, Ni J (2009) Analysis of micro/mesoscale sheet forming process with uniform size dependent material constitutive model. Mater Sci Eng A Struct Mater Prop Microstruct Process 526(1–2):93–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Peng LF, Liu F, Ni J, Lai XM (2007) Size effects in thin sheet metal forming and its elastic-plastic constitutive model. Mater Des 28(5):1731–1736CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Lai XM, Peng LF, Hu P, Lan SH, Ni J (2008) Material behavior modelling in micro/meso-scale forming process with considering size/scale effects. Comput Mater Sci 43(4):1003–1009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Schmid E, Boas W (1968) Plasticity of crystals, with special reference to metals. Chapman and Hall, London, p 353Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Sachs G (1928) Zur Ableitung einer Fliessbedingung. Zeichschrift Ver Dtsch Ing 72:734–736Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Taylor GI (1938) Plastic strains in metals. J Inst Met 62:307–324Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kocks UK, Canova GR (1981) How many slip systems, and which? In: 2nd Risø international symposium on metallurgy and materials science. Risø National Laboratory, DenmarkGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Leffers T (1981) Microstructures and mechanisms of polycrystal deformation at low temperature. In: 2nd Risø international symposium on metallurgy and materials science. Risø National Laboratory, DenmarkGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Eichenhueller B, Egerer E, Engel U (2007) Microforming at elevated temperature—forming and material behaviour. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 33(1–2):119–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Egerer E, Engel U (2004) Process characterization and material flow in microforming at elevated temperatures. J Manuf Process 6(1):1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Simons G, Weippert C, Dual J, Villain J (2006) Size effects in tensile testing of thin cold rolled and annealed Cu foils. Mater Sci Eng A Struct Mater Prop Microstruct Process 416(1–2):290–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Parasiz SA, VanBenthysen R, Kinsey BL (2010) Deformation size effects due to specimen and grain size in microbending. J Manuf Sci Eng Trans ASME 132(1):011018CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Ebrahimi F, Ahmed Z, Li HQ (2006) Tensile properties of electrodeposited nanocrystalline FCC metals. Mater Manuf Processes 21(7):687–693CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Klein M, Hadrboletz A, Weiss B, Khatibi G (2001) The ‘size effect’ on the stress-strain, fatigue and fracture properties of thin metallic foils. Mater Sci Eng A Struct Mater Prop Microstruct Process 319:924–928CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Henning M, Vehoff H (2007) Statistical size effects based on grain size and texture in thin sheets. Mater Sci Eng A Struct Mater Prop Microstruct Process 452:602–613CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Chin GY, Mammel WL (1967) Computer solutions of the Taylor analysis for axisymmetric flow. Trans TMS-AIME 239:1400–1405Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Fu MH, Chan KC, Lee WB, Chan LK (1997) Springback in the roller forming of integrated circuit leadframes. J Mater Process Technol 66(1–3):107–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Diehl A, Engel U, Geiger M (2010) Influence of microstructure on the mechanical properties and the forming behaviour of very thin metal foils. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 47(1–4):53–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Chan WL, Fu MW (2012) Experimental studies of plastic deformation behaviors in microheading process. J Mater Process Technol 212(7):1501–1512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Chen GN, Shen H, Hu SU, Baudelet B (1990) Roughening of the free surfaces of metallic sheets during stretch forming. Mater Sci Eng A Struct Mater Prop Microstruct Process 128(1):33–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Chandrasekaran D, Nygards M (2003) A study of the surface deformation behaviour at grain boundaries in an ultra-low-carbon steel. Acta Mater 51(18):5375–5384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Bretheau T, Caldemaison D (1981) Test of mechanical interaction models between polycrystal grains by means of local strain measurements. In: 2nd Risø international symposium on metallurgy and materials science. Risø National Laboratory, DenmarkGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Urie VM, Wain HL (1952) Plastic deformation of coarse-grained aluminum. J Inst Met 81:153–159Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Beaudoin AJ, Acharya A, Chen SR, Korzekwa DA, Stout MG (2000) Consideration of grain-size effect and kinetics in the plastic deformation of metal polycrystals. Acta Mater 48(13):3409–3423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Hurley PJ, Humphreys FJ (2003) The application of EBSD to the study of substructural development in a cold rolled single-phase aluminium alloy. Acta Mater 51(4):1087–1102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Wu PD, Lloyd DJ (2004) Analysis of surface roughening in AA6111 automotive sheet. Acta Mater 52(7):1785–1798CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Wilson DV, Roberts WT, Rodrigues PMB (1981) Effects of Grain Anisotropy on Limit Strains in Biaxial Stretching .2. Sheets of cubic metals and alloys with well-developed preferred orientations. Metall Trans A Phys Metall Mater Sci 12(9):1603–1611Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Osakada K, Oyane M (1971) On the roughening of free surface in deformation processes. Bull Jpn Soc Mech Eng 14(68):171–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Chan WL, Fu MW (2011) Experimental studies and numerical modeling of the specimen and grain size effects on the flow stress of sheet metal in microforming. Mater Sci Eng A 528(25–26):7674–7683CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Chan WL, Fu MW, Lu J, Liu JG (2010) Modeling of grain size effect on micro deformation behavior in micro-forming of pure copper. Mater Sci Eng A 527(24–25):6638–6648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Fu MW, Chan WL (2011) Geometry and grain size effects on the fracture behavior of sheet metal in micro-scale plastic deformation. Mater Des 32(10):4738–4746CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Chan WL, Fu MW (2012) Experimental and simulation based study on micro-scaled sheet metal deformation behavior in microembossing process. Mater Sci Eng A 556:60–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Barlow CYJ, Bay B, Hansen N (1985) A comparative investigation of surface relief structures and dislocation microstructures in cold-rolled aluminum. Philos Mag A Phys Condens Matter Struct Defects Mech Prop 51(2):253–275Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringThe Hong Kong Polytechnic UniversityHung HomHong Kong
  2. 2.The Hong Kong Polytechnic UniversityHong KongPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations