Tissue Typing, Crossmatch and Antibody Incompatibility in Kidney Transplantation



For the majority of suitable patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), transplantation offers a significant survival advantage, improved quality of life and a substantial saving in terms of annual medical care. In countries with limited or no chronic dialysis provision, transplantation may offer the only hope of survival for patients with ESRD. However in every country with a transplant programme, the demand for kidney transplants continues to outstrip supply with the consequence that many patients fail to be transplanted in a timely fashion or at all. The two principal immunological barriers to solid organ transplantation (SOT); blood group incompatibility and HLA incompatibility have restricted access to transplantation. In the last two decades, strategies to expand the pool of donors have become increasingly commonplace and include the use of blood group-incompatible (ABOi) transplants, HLA-incompatible transplants (HLAi), acceptable mismatch schemes and paired-exchange programmes.


Human Leukocyte Antigen Human Leukocyte Antigen Class Human Leukocyte Antigen Antigen Transplant Glomerulopathy Human Leukocyte Antigen Match 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.UCL Centre for Nephrology and the Anthony Nolan TrustHospital Royal Free London NHS Foundation TrustLondonUK
  2. 2.UCL Centre for NephrologyRoyal Free HospitalLondonUK
  3. 3.UCL Department of NephrologyRoyal Free London NHS Foundation TrustHampstead, LondonUK

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