Congenital Anomalies of the Kidneys and Urinary Tract

  • Angela D. Gupta
  • Dan Wood
  • John O. Connolly


Congenital anomalies of the kidneys and urinary tract (CAKUT) encompass a broad range of developmental malformations of the kidney and the lower urinary tract. The many malformations are now detected by fetal ultrasound screening, but cases may still present for the first time in childhood with symptoms of failure to thrive or during investigation of urinary tract infection. In adults developmental abnormalities may still present with abnormal urinalysis, renal stones, hypertension or chronic kidney disease or as an incidental finding.


Chronic Kidney Disease Renal Scarring Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus Posterior Urethral Valve Ileal Conduit 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.UrologyJohns Hopkins HospitalBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Adolescent UrologyUniversity College London HospitalsLondonUK
  3. 3.UCL Centre for NephrologyRoyal Free HospitalLondonUK

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