Advertisement

Visualising Space and Movement: A Multidisciplinary Approach to the Palace of Diocletian, Split

  • Vincent L. GaffneyEmail author
  • Gareth Sears
  • Chris Gaffney
  • Armin Schmidt
  • H. Goodchild
  • M. Lobb
  • T. Sparrow
  • D. Tomcik
  • Branko Kirigin
  • Ante Milosević
  • Vedran Barabrić
Chapter
Part of the Springer Series on Cultural Computing book series (SSCC)

Abstract

The Palace of Diocletian, now the old town of Split, is one of the most important structures for the study of late Roman palaces, imperial ceremonial and urban change in late antiquity. At the heart of this palatial complex is the Mausoleum of Diocletian/Split Cathedral; a transformation which neatly encapsulates the transition from imperial residence to late antique and medieval town. Emerging from work undertaken by the Central Dalmatian Archaeological Project in 2009, this chapter will demonstrate how 3D spatial models can be integrated with subsurface exploration technologies in order to better understand the relationships between standing and subsurface remains at Split through the production of a 3D model. It will then use the integrated results from the 3D laser scanning of the Mausoleum and its surroundings and GPR in the Peristyle of the Palace to make suggestions about the nature of that space and how it might have changed over time.

Keywords:

Croatia Split Diocletian Late antiquity Ground penetrating radar 3D laser scanning 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank IBM for funding the project and the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) for permission to use their Pulse Ekko Pro radar (Loan No. 878) and for providing support whilst we were in the field. We would also like to thank the Centre Studia Mediterranea, University of Split, and the Service for the Old City Core, Commune of Split, in particular Dr Goran Nikšić, for their invaluable aid in bringing the project to a successful conclusion. Finally we would like to thank Mr Henry Buglass for producing the drawings.

References

  1. Arce, J. (1997). Emperadores, Palacios y Villae (a propósito de la villa romana de Cercadilla Córdoba). Antiquité Tardive, 5, 293–302.Google Scholar
  2. Balmelle, C. (2001). Les demeures aristocratiques d’Aquitaine. Bordeaux, Paris: Ausonius.Google Scholar
  3. Barceló, J. A., Forte, M., & Sanders, D. H. (2000). Virtual reality in archaeology (BAR Int. Ser. 843). Oxford: Archaeopress.Google Scholar
  4. Barnes, T. D. (1973). Lactantius and constantine. JRS, 63, 29–46.Google Scholar
  5. Barnes, T. D. (1982). The new empire of Diocletian and Constantine. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Barnes, T. D. (1996). Emperors, panegyrics, prefects, provinces and palaces (284-317). JRA 9, 532–552.Google Scholar
  7. Belamarić, J. (2004). Gynaeceum Iovense Dalmatiae—Aspalatho. In A. Demandt, A. Goltz, & H. Schlange-Schöningen (Eds.), Diokletian und die Tetrarchie (pp. 141–162). New York: De Gruyter.Google Scholar
  8. Bizzarri, M., & Forni, G. (1960). Diplome militare del 306 D. C. Rilasciato a un pretoriano di origine Italiana. Athenaeum n.s, 38, 3–25.Google Scholar
  9. Brown, P. R. L. (1981). The cult of the saints; its rise and function in Latin Christianity. London: SCM Press Ltd.Google Scholar
  10. Bruun, P. (1988-1989) Carnuntum and the Filii Augustorum. Byzantium and the North: Acta Byzantina Fennica 4, 7–31.Google Scholar
  11. Čanak-Medić, M. (1995). Spatial development of Romuliana within the late Roman court architecture. In D. Srejović (Ed.), The age of Tetrarchs (pp. 50–63). Belgrade: Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts.Google Scholar
  12. Chevalier, P. (1995). Salona II: Ecclesiae Dalmatiae: l’architecture paléochrétienne de la province romaine de Dalmatie (IVe-VIIe s.) [en dehors de la capitale, Salona], Collection de l’École française de Rome 194, 2, Split and Rome: Arheološki muzej and École Française de Rome.Google Scholar
  13. Corcoran, S. (1996). The empire of the Tetrarchs: imperial pronouncements and government, AD 284–324, Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  14. Corcoran, S. (2006). Galerius, Maximinus and the Titulature of the Third Tetrarchy. BICS, 49, 231–240.Google Scholar
  15. Cuttler, R., Gaffney, C. F., Gaffney, V. L., Goodchild, H., Howard, A., & Sears, G. M. (2007). Mapping the city, sustaining the environment: A programme of 3D scanning, geophysical survey and geomorphological assessment at the World Heritage Site of Cyrene. Birmingham: Birmingham Archaeology Report PN.1320.01.Google Scholar
  16. Davies, P. J. (2000). Death and the emperor: Roman imperial funerary monuments from Augustus to Marcus Aurelius. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Deliyannis, D. M. (2010). The mausoleum of theoderic and the seven wonders of the world. Journal of Late Antiquity, 3(2), 365–385.Google Scholar
  18. Duval, N. (1961). Le ‘palais’ de Dioclétien à Spalato à la lumière des récentes découvertes, Bulletin de la Societé Nationale des Antiquaires de France 80, 76–117.Google Scholar
  19. Duval, N. (1961–62a, 1965). La place de Split dans l’architecture aulique du bas-empire, Urbs 4, 67–95.Google Scholar
  20. Duval, N. (1961–62b, 1965) The position of Split in the aulic architecture of the period of late antiquity, Urbs 4, Split, 155-8.Google Scholar
  21. Duval, N. (1971). Palais et forteresses en Yougoslavie: recherches nouvelles, Bulletin de la Société Nationale des Antiquaires de France, 1971, 99–128.Google Scholar
  22. Duval, N. (1991). Split 5 et 6. JRA, 4, 378–384.Google Scholar
  23. Dvoržak Schrunk, I. (1989). The red slip wares. In S. McNally, J. Marasović & T. Marasović (Eds.), Diocletian’s palace: American-Yugoslav joint excavations (Vol. 5, pp. 45–206). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota.Google Scholar
  24. Dyggve, E. (1965). On the original appearance of the antique Peristyle. Urbs, 4, 153.Google Scholar
  25. Frazer, A. (1966). The iconography of the emperor Maxentius’ buildings in Via Appia. The Art Bulletin, 48(3/4), 385–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Frischer, B., & Dakouri-Hild, A. (Eds.). (2008). Beyond illustration. 2D and 3D digital technologies as tools for discovery in archaeology, BAR Int. Ser. 1805. Oxford: Archaeopress.Google Scholar
  27. Gaffney, C. F., & Gaffney, V. L. (Eds.). (2000). Non-invasive Investigations at Wroxeter at the end of the 20th century. Archaeological Prospection 7(2), 101–105.Google Scholar
  28. Gaffney, V. L. (2004). Cetina valley, Croatia. Current World Archaeology, 3, 8–11.Google Scholar
  29. Johnson, M. J. (1991). On the burial places of the Valentinian dynasty. Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte 40(4), 501–506.Google Scholar
  30. Johnson, M. J. (2009). The Roman imperial mausoleum in late antiquity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Lavan, L. (1999). The residences of late antique governors: A gazetteer. Antiquité Tardive, 7, 135–164.Google Scholar
  32. Lavan, L. (Ed.). (2001). The praetorian of civil governors in late antiquity. Recent Research in Late-Antique Urbanism, JRA (Supplement 42), 39–56.Google Scholar
  33. Lavan, L., Özgenel, L., & Sarantis, A. (Eds.) (2007). Housing in late antiquity: From palaces to shops. Boston: Brill.Google Scholar
  34. Leadbetter, B. (2009). Galerius and the will of diocletian. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  35. Lynch, K. (1960). The image of the city. Cambridge: Mass.Google Scholar
  36. MacDonald, W. L. (1986). The architecture of the Roman empire II: An urban appraisal. London: New Haven.Google Scholar
  37. Mackensen, M. (2003). Das diokletianische Kastell Magdolum/Tell el-Herr am Ostrand des Nildeltas und andere spätrömische Kastelle in Ägypten. JRA, 16, 725–734.Google Scholar
  38. Mackensen, M. (2006). The Late Roman Fort at Nag el-Hagar near Kom Ombo in the province of Thebaïs (Upper Egypt). Report on the first season of the Egyptian-Swiss Mission. Mitteil. DAI Kairo 62, 161–195.Google Scholar
  39. Mackensen, M. (2009). The Tetrarchic fort at Nag al-Hagar in the province of Thebaïs: preliminary report (2005-8). JRA 22, 287–231.Google Scholar
  40. MacMullen, R. (2009). The second church: Popular christianity A.D. 200–400. Atlanta: Society Of Biblical Literature.Google Scholar
  41. Mannell, J. (1995). The monopteroi in the west precinct of Diocletian’s palace at Split. JRA 8, 235–44.Google Scholar
  42. Marasović, J. (1961-62, 1965). A survey of exploration, preservation, and restoration work carried out in the Palace of Diocletian between 1955 and 1965, Urbs 4, 149–52.Google Scholar
  43. Marasović, J., Marasović, T., McNally, S., & Wilkes, J. (1972). Diocletian’s Palace: Report on Joint Excavations in Southeast Quarter. Split: Part One.Google Scholar
  44. Marasović, J., & Marasović, T. (1994). Le ricerche nel Palazzo di Diocleziano a Split negli ultimi 30 anni (1964–1994), Antiquité Tardive 2, 89–106.Google Scholar
  45. Marasović, T. (1982). Diocletian’s palace. Belgrade: Nolit.Google Scholar
  46. McNally, S. (1989). Introduction: State of scholarship. In S. McNally, J. Marasović & T. Marasović (Eds.), Diocletian’s palace: American-Yugoslav joint excavations (Vol. 5, pp. 1–43). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota.Google Scholar
  47. McNally, S. (1994). Joint American-Croatian excavations in Split (1965-1974). L’Antiquité Tardive 2, 107–121.Google Scholar
  48. McNally, S. (1996). The architectural ornament of Diocletian’s palace at Split (BAR Int. Ser. 639). Oxford: Archaeopress.Google Scholar
  49. Sears, G., Gaffney, V., Gaffney, C., Cuttler, R., Goodchild, H., & Kane, S. (2012). Deciphering ‘Lost’ urban landscapes at cyrene. In N. Christie & A. Augenti (Eds.), Vrbes extinctae: Archaeologies of abandoned classical towns UK: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  50. Smith, D., Gaffney, V., Grossman, D., Howard, A. J., Milošević, A., Krištof, O., et al. (2006). Assessing the later prehistoric environmental archaeology and landscape development of the Cetina valley, Croatia Environmental Archaeology, 11(2), 171–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Srejović, D. (1993). Roman imperial towns and palaces in Serbia. Belgrade: Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts.Google Scholar
  52. Srejović, D. (1994). The representations of the tetrarchs in Romuliana. Antiquité Tardive 2, 143–152.Google Scholar
  53. Srejović, D., Lalović, A., & Janković, Đ. (1978). [1979] Two late Roman temples at Gamzigrad. Archaeologia Iugoslavica 19, 54–63.Google Scholar
  54. Srejović, D., & Vasić, Č. (1994). Emperor Galerius’s buildings in Romuliana (Gamzigrad, eastern Serbia). Antiquité Tardive 2, 123–142.Google Scholar
  55. Stefan, A. (2004). Un rang impérial nouveau à l’époque de la quatrième tétrarchie: Filius Augustorum. Première Partie. Antiquité Tardive, 12, 273–291.Google Scholar
  56. Stefan, A. (2005). Un rang impérial nouveau à l’époque de la quatrième tétrarchie: Filius Augustorum. Deuxième Partie. Antiquité Tardive, 13, 169–204.Google Scholar
  57. Swoboda, K. M. (1961). The problem of the iconography of late antique and early mediaeval palaces. Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, 20(2), 78–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Uytterhoeven, I. (2007). Housing in late antiquity: Thematic perspectives. In L. Lavan, L. Özgenel & A. Sarantis (Eds.), Housing in late antiquity: From palaces to shops. Leiden, Boston: Brill.Google Scholar
  59. Vickers, M. (1973). Observations on the octagon at Thessaloniki. JRS, 63, 111–120.Google Scholar
  60. Wilkes, J. J. (1969). Dalmatia. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  61. Wilkes, J. J. (1986). Diocletian’s Palace, Split: residence of a retired roman emperor. London: Oxbow.Google Scholar
  62. Wilkes, J. J. (1991). Review of Diocletian’s Palace. American-Yugoslav Joint Excavations Volumes 5 and 6. The Classical Review, n.s. 41(2), 450–451.Google Scholar
  63. Williams, S. (2000). Diocletian and the Roman recovery. London: Routledge.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vincent L. Gaffney
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Gareth Sears
    • 3
  • Chris Gaffney
    • 4
  • Armin Schmidt
    • 4
  • H. Goodchild
    • 5
  • M. Lobb
    • 6
  • T. Sparrow
    • 4
  • D. Tomcik
    • 7
  • Branko Kirigin
    • 8
  • Ante Milosević
    • 9
  • Vedran Barabrić
    • 10
  1. 1.IBM Visual and Spatial Technology Centre, Digital Humanities HubThe University of BirminghamEdgbastonUK
  2. 2.Centre for Creative Content and Digital InnovationUniversiti of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  3. 3.Department of Classics, Ancient History and Archaeology, IBM Visual and Spatial Technology CentreUniversity of BirminghamBirminghamUK
  4. 4.Archaeological Sciences University of BradfordBradfordUK
  5. 5.Department of ArchaeologyThe University of YorkYorkUK
  6. 6.The Department of GeographyUniversity of SouthamptonSouthamptonUK
  7. 7.The Institute of New Technologies and Applied Informatics in the Technical University of LiberecLiberecSlovakia
  8. 8.Centre Studia Mediterranea, Faculty of PhilosophyUniversity of SplitSplitCroatia
  9. 9.Museum of Croatian Archaeological MonumentsSplitCroatia
  10. 10.Faculty of Philosophy, Art History DepartmentUniversity of SplitSplitCroatia

Personalised recommendations