Digital Heritage: Concluding Thoughts

  • Eugene Ch′ngEmail author
  • Vincent L. Gaffney
  • Henry Chapman
Part of the Springer Series on Cultural Computing book series (SSCC)


Digital approaches to heritage and archaeology were in development since the 1980s and witnessed exponential growth throughout the 1990s. The successive decade saw the breadth and depth of digital technology being applied in heritage and archaeology, encompassing a more complete process in research and focusing on more practical methodologies. It is perhaps at this juncture that digital heritage can be said to be approaching a stage of maturity. The impacts of technological change on the process and dissemination of research witnessed within this volume have demonstrated just that. However, the combinations and permutations of existing and emerging digital technologies and the subject of study in heritage and archaeology are continually creating new areas of research. In this concluding chapter, we reflect upon the research presented in this volume and explore the notion of a continuum of digital heritage development and the recent changes in a more substantive manner.


Digital technology Heritage Blurring boundaries Future trends 


  1. Ambrus, V. (2006). Drawing on archaeology. Stroud: Tempus.Google Scholar
  2. Ambrus, V. G., & Aston, M. (2009). Recreating the past. Charleston: History Press.Google Scholar
  3. Atzori, L., Iera, A., & Morabito, G. (2010). The internet of things: A survey. Computer Networks, 54(15), 2787–2805.CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  4. Barceló, J. A., Forte, M., & Sanders, D. H. (2000). Virtual reality in archaeology. Oxford: Archaeo press.Google Scholar
  5. Barker, P. (1982). Techniques of archaeological excavation. London: Batsford.Google Scholar
  6. Baudrillard, J. (1983). Simulations. New York: Semiotext.Google Scholar
  7. Bentkowska-Kafel, A., Denard, H., & Baker, D. (2012). Paradata and transparency in virtual heritage. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing Ltd.Google Scholar
  8. Berners-Lee, T., Hendler, J., & Lassila, O. (2001). The semantic web. Scientific American, 284(5), 28–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bonabeau, E. (2002). Agent-based modeling: Methods and techniques for simulating human systems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 99(Suppl 3), 7280–7287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Buskens, V., Raub, W., & van Assen, M. A. L. M. (2011). Micro-macro links and microfoundations in sociology. London: Routledge/Taylor Francis.Google Scholar
  11. Byrne, D. (1998). Complexity theory and the social sciences. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  12. Ch′ng, E. (2007). Using Games Engines for Archaeological Visualisation: Recreating Lost Worlds. 11th International Conference on Computer Games: AI, Animation, Mobile, Educational & Serious Games, CGames’07, (pp.26–30).Google Scholar
  13. Ch′ng, E. (2009). An Artificial Life-Based Vegetation Modelling Approach for Biodiversity Research. In R. Chiong (Ed.), Nature-Inspired informatics for Intelligent Applications and Knowledge Discovery: Implications in Business, Science and Engineering. Hershey: IGI Global.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ch′ng, E. (2013a). Digital heritage tourism: Reconfiguring the visitor experience in heritage sites, museums and architecture in the era of pervasive computing. In Keynote Paper. Percorsi creativi di turismo urbano (Creative Paths of Urban Tourism), Catania, 2224 September 2011. Bologna: Pàtron.Google Scholar
  15. Ch′ng, E. (2013b). Model resolution in complex systems simulation: Agent preferences, behavior, dynamics and n-tiered networks. Simulation, 89(5) 634–658.Google Scholar
  16. Ch′ng, E., & Stone, R.J. (2006a). 3D Archaeological reconstruction and visualization: An artificial life model for determining vegetation dispersal patterns in ancient landscapes. In Computer Graphics, Imaging and Visualization (CGiV). Sydney, Australia, (pp. 112–118) Sydney, Australia: IEEE Computer Society.Google Scholar
  17. Ch′ng, E., & Stone, R.J. (2006b). Enhancing virtual reality with artificial life: Reconstructing a flooded european mesolithic landscape. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 15(3), 341–352.Google Scholar
  18. Ch′ng, E., et al. (2011). From sites to landscapes: How computing technology is shaping archaeological practice. Computer, 44(7), 40–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chapman, H. P., Gaffney, V. L., & Moulden, H. L. (2010). The Eton Myers collection virtual museum. International Journal of Humanities and Arts Computing, 4(1), 81–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Costopoulos, A., & Lake, M. W. (2010). Simulating change: archaeology into the twenty-first century. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press.Google Scholar
  21. DataDig, (2013). Digging Into Data Challenge. Retrieved May 20, 2013
  22. De Wolf, T., & Holvoet, T. (2005). Emergence Versus Self-Organisation: Different Concepts but Promising When Combined. LNCS, 3464(2005), 1–15.Google Scholar
  23. Frischer, B. & Dakouri-Hild, A. Beyond Illustration. 2D and 3D Digital Technologies as Tools for Discovery in Archaeology. (2008). Oxford: BAR International Series 1805, British archaeological Reports.Google Scholar
  24. Gaffney, V. (2008). In the kingdom of the blind: Visualisation and E-science in archaeology, the arts and humanities. In M. Greeengrass & L. Hughes (Eds.), The Virtual Representation of the Past, (pp.125–135). London: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  25. Gaffney, C. & Gaffney, V. (2006). No further territorial demands: On the importance of scale and visualisation within archaeological remote sensing. From Artefacts to Anomalies: Papers inspired by the contribution of Arnold Aspinall. University of Bradford, pp. 1–2 Google Scholar
  26. Gaffney, V., Thomson, K. & Fitch, S. (2007). Mapping Doggerland: the Mesolithic landscapes of the southern North Sea. Oxford: Archaeopress.Google Scholar
  27. Goldsmith, J., By, T. W. R., & Sanfilippo, R. C. (2007). Who controls the internet? Illusions of a borderless world. Syracuse Science & Technology Law Reporter, 2007, 8–110.Google Scholar
  28. Gregory, D. (1994). Geographical imaginations. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  29. Holland, J. (1998). Emergence: From chaos to order. Redwood City: Addison-Wesley.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  30. Holland, J. H. (2012). Signals and boundaries: Building blocks for complex adaptive systems. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  31. Khan, M. & De Byl, P. (2011). Preserving our past with toys of the future. In: Ascilite Conference. pp. 718–728.Google Scholar
  32. Lohr, S. (2012). The age of big data. New York Times, Feb 11, 2012.Google Scholar
  33. McLuhan, M. (1964). The extensions of man. New York: McGraw-HillGoogle Scholar
  34. Metcalfe, B. (1995). Metcalfe’s law: A network becomes more valuable as it reaches more users. Infoworld, 17(40), 53–54.Google Scholar
  35. Miller, J.H. & Page, S.E. (2007). Complex adaptive systems: An introduction to computational models of social life (Princeton studies in complexity), Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Mitchell, M. (2009). Complexity: A guided tour, New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Page, S.E. (2010). Diversity and complexity. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Parunak, H.V.D., Savit, R., & Riolo, R.L. (1998). Agent-based modeling vs. equation-based modeling: A case study and users’ guide. In: Multi-Agent Systems and Agent-Based Simulation (pp. 10–25). Paris: Springer.Google Scholar
  39. Paterson, L., & Low, B. (2011). Student attitudes towards mobile library services for smartphones. Library Hi Tech, 29(3), 412–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Pickles, J. (1995). Ground truth: The social implications of geographic information systems. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  41. Schillo, M., Fischer, K., & Klein, C.T. (2001). The Micro-Macro Link in DAI and Sociology. In: Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Multi-Agent-Based Simulation-Revised and Additional Papers, (pp.133–148).Google Scholar
  42. Scott, J. (2012). Social network analysis. London: SAGE Publications Limited.Google Scholar
  43. Sole, R., & Goodwin, B. C. (2002). Signs of life: How complexity pervades biology. New York: The Perseus Books Group.Google Scholar
  44. Sorrell, A. (1976). Reconstructing the past. London: Batsford.Google Scholar
  45. Squazzoni, F. (2008). The micro-macro link in social simulation. Sociologica, 1(2008).Google Scholar
  46. Styliani, S., et al. (2009). Virtual museums, a survey and some issues for consideration. Journal of cultural Heritage, 10(4), 520–528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Tilley, C.Y. (1994). A phenomenology of landscape: places, paths and monuments. Oxford: Berg.Google Scholar
  48. Weaver, W. (1948). Science and complexity. American Scientist, 36(4), 536–544.Google Scholar
  49. Weaver, W. (1949). Problems of organized complexity. American Scientist, 36, 143–156.Google Scholar
  50. Wheatley, D., & Gillings, M. (2002). Spatial technology and archaeology: the archaeological applications of GIS. Boca Raton: CRC Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Wymer, J. (1991). Mesolithic Britain. Oxford: Shire Publications.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eugene Ch′ng
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Vincent L. Gaffney
    • 1
    • 2
  • Henry Chapman
    • 3
  1. 1.IBM Visual and Spatial Technology Centre, Digital Humanities HubThe University of BirminghamEdgbastonUK
  2. 2.Centre for Creative Content and Digital InnovationUniversiti MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  3. 3.IBM Visual and Spatial Technology CentreThe University of BirminghamEdgbastonUK

Personalised recommendations