Heart Failure and Pulmonary Hypertension in Women

  • Andrew Darlington
  • Jacinta Green
  • Gladys P. Velarde
Chapter

Abstract

Heart failure is characterized as a syndrome caused by cardiac dysfunction, leading to neurohormonal and circulatory abnormalities, resulting in the characteristic signs/symptoms of fluid retention, shortness of breath, and fatigue, particularly on exertion [1]. The worldwide prevalence and incidence continues to rise over time and is rapidly approaching epidemic proportions. In the United States alone, there are an estimated six million people living with heart failure and 670,000 new cases diagnosed each year, of which 320,000 of these are women [2]. This has led to an annual expenditure approaching nearly 39 billion dollars [2, 3].

Keywords

Fatigue Testosterone Doxorubicin Catecholamine Digoxin 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Alan Miller, MD

Professor of Medicine University of Florida College of Medicine – Jacksonville, Jacksonville, Florida, US

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrew Darlington
    • 1
  • Jacinta Green
    • 1
  • Gladys P. Velarde
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of CardiologyUniversity of Florida College of Medicine-JacksonvilleJacksonvilleUSA

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