Hacking Europe pp 107-128 | Cite as

Galaxy and the New Wave: Yugoslav Computer Culture in the 1980s

Chapter
Part of the History of Computing book series (HC)

Abstract

During the Cold War, Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was geopolitically positioned in-between major world powers. Neither a part of the Warsaw Pact nor of NATO yet sandwiched geographically between these powerful blocks, the country occupied a unique position among countries politically, technologically, and culturally. In the context of the Cold War, the local emphasis on self-reliance and massive government investments resulted in a high-level technological expertise in urban Yugoslavia, while the government maintained tight control over the import of objects and ideas from the superpowers. In the cultural sense, Yugoslavia followed many contemporary trends with Western Europe and the United States, while adding a distinct local cultural flavor into the mix. As a consequence, Yugoslavia knew local subcultures that were more than a mere emulation of their Western analogues. One of these subcultures, coming to prominence in the 1980s, was the Yugoslav New Wave scene: it blended social critique, music, and arts with the occasional use of home computers. Among young urban educated Yugoslavs, a specific set of routes and trends in appropriating technologies emerged that included a home-brew computer industry and distinct subculture of meetings, radio shows, music, and parties.

Keywords

Economic Crisis Europe Assure Expense Egypt 

Bibliography

  1. Abramovitch, D. 2005. Analog computing in the Soviet Union. An interview with Boris Kogan. IEEE Control Systems 25(3): 52–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Antonić, Voja. 1983. Galaksija. http://www.paralax.rs/pr83.htm. Accessed 17 June 2010.
  3. Barryman, J. 1988. The Soviet Union and Yugoslavia’s defence and foreign policy. In Yugoslavia’s security dilemmas – Armed forces, national defence and foreign policy, ed. M. Milivojevic, J.B. Allcock, and P. Maurer, 192–260. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Batanović, Vladan, and Jovan Kon. 2006. IMP Riznica znanja. Belgrade: M. Pupin Institute and PKS.Google Scholar
  5. Bertsch, Gary K., and Thomas W. Ganschow. 1976. Comparative communism: The Soviet, Chinese, and Yugoslav models. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman.Google Scholar
  6. Bošković, Ratko. 1984. Kako je rodjena Galaksija. Magazine Start, February, 25–26.Google Scholar
  7. Calic, Marie-Janine. 2011. The beginning of the end: The 1970s as a historical turning point in Yugoslavia. In The crisis of socialist modernity. The Soviet Union and Yugoslavia in the 1970s, ed. Marie-Janine Calic, Dietmar Neutatz, and Julia Obertreis, 66–86. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.Google Scholar
  8. Central Intelligence Agency. 1990. World factbook. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency.Google Scholar
  9. Cox, John K. 2005. Slovenia: Evolving loyalties. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  10. Curtis, Glenn E. 1990. Yugoslavia: A country study. Washington, DC: Library of Congress, Federal Research Division.Google Scholar
  11. Dulić, Tornislav, and Roland Kostić. 2010. Yugoslavs in arms: Guerrilla tradition, total defence and the ethnic security dilemma. Europe-Asia Studies 62(7): 1051–1072.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Economist. 1984. Yugoslavia. In The world in figures, 240–242. London: MacMillan.Google Scholar
  13. Hammond, Thomas Taylor. 1954. Yugoslavia between East and West. Washington, DC: Foreign Policy Association.Google Scholar
  14. Janjatović, Petar. 1998. Ilustrovana Enciklopedija Yu Rocka 1960–1997. Belgrade: Geopoetika.Google Scholar
  15. Klaver, Marie-José. 1998. De Digitale Vluchtweg. NRC Handelsblad, October 29.Google Scholar
  16. Klaver, Marie-José. 1999. Boem, boem uit de chatroom. NRC Handelsblad, May 17.Google Scholar
  17. Lydall, Harold. 1989. Yugoslavia in crisis. Oxford: Clarendon.Google Scholar
  18. Markovic, Nikola. 2009. E-Potencijali Srbije nr1. CEPiT E-volucija, 3–11. Belgrade: Studeni.Google Scholar
  19. Marković, Predrag. 2011. ‘Where have all the flowers gone?’ – Yugoslav culture in the 1970s. In The crisis of socialist modernity. The Soviet Union and Yugoslavia in the 1970s, ed. Marie-Janine Calic, Dietmar Neutatz, and Julia Obertreis, 118–133. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.Google Scholar
  20. Mesarić, Milan. 1971. Suvremena znanstveno tehnička revolucija. Zagreb: Ekonomski institut.Google Scholar
  21. Misina, Dalibor. 2008. ‘Who’s that singing over there?’ Yugoslav rock-music and the poetics of social critique. PhD thesis, University of Alberta, Alberta.Google Scholar
  22. Modli, Zoran. 2011. Ventilator 202 recollections. http://www.modli.rs/radio/ventilator/ventilator.html. Accessed 20 Feb 2011.
  23. New Scientist Technology Review. 1971. Yugoslavia Grows Ripe for computer boom. New Scientist and Science Journal 51(768): 576.Google Scholar
  24. Patterson, Patrick H. 2003. Consumer culture, the new ‘New Class,’ and the making of the Yugoslav dream, 1950–1965. Paper presented at states and social transformation in Eastern Europe 1945–1965. London: The Open University Conference Center.Google Scholar
  25. Patterson, Patrick H. 2006. Dangerous liaisons: Soviet-bloc tourists and the Yugoslav good life in the 1960s and 1970s. In The business of tourism: Place, faith and history, ed. Philip Scranton and Janet F. Davidson, 186–212. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  26. Patterson, Patrick H. 2009. Making markets Marxist? The East European grocery store from rationing to rationality to rationalizations. In Food chains: From farmyard to shopping cart, ed. Warren Belasco and Roger Horowitz, 196–216. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  27. Perry, Marvin, Myrna Chase, Margaret C. Jacob, et al. 2007. Western civilization: Ideas, politics, and society. Boston: Wadsworth.Google Scholar
  28. Potter, William C., Djuro Miljanić, and Ivo Slaus. 2000. Tito’s nuclear legacy. Bulletin of Atomic Scientists 56(2): 63–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Protić, Jelica, and Dejan Ristanović. 2011. Building computers in Serbia: The first half of the digital century. Computer Science and Information Systems 8(3): 549–571.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ramet, Sabrina P. 2006. The three Yugoslavias: State-building and legitimation, 1918–2005. Bloomington: University of Indiana Press.Google Scholar
  31. Rosen, Margit. 2011. A little-known story about a movement, a magazine, and the computer’s arrival in art; New tendencies and bit international, 1961–1973. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  32. Rothstein, Robert L. 1968. Alliances and small powers. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Sundhaussen, Holm. 2012. Jugoslawien und seine Nachfolgestaaten 1943–2011. Eine ungewöhnliche Geschichte des Gewöhnlichen. Wien: Böhlau.Google Scholar
  34. Tomović, R., A. Mandžić, T. Aleksić, et al. 1960. Cifarski Elektronski Računar CER10 IBK Vinča. ETAN-1960 1: 305–330.Google Scholar
  35. van Tijen, Tjebbe (ed.). 1989. Europe against the current: Catalogue on alternative, independent and radical information carriers. Amsterdam: IISG.Google Scholar
  36. van Tijen, Tjebbe. 1990. Europa tegen de stroom. De Gids 153(6): 466–471.Google Scholar
  37. Veladžić, Edin, Goran Miloradović, et al. 2010. Yugoslavia between East and West; Ordinary people in unordinary country. Online project EUROCLIO – HIP http://www.cliohip.com. Accessed 24 Nov 2011.
  38. Walen, Robert J., Stevan Dedijer, and Pavle Savić of IBK Vinča. 1953. O dva bitna uslova za razvitak atomske energije kod nas. Belgrade, Yugoslavia.Google Scholar
  39. Zhuk, Sergei. 2010. Rock and roll in the Rocket City: The West, identity and ideology in Soviet Dnepropetrovsk. Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson Center Press.Google Scholar
  40. Zimmerman, William. 1972. Hierarchical regional systems and the politics of system boundaries. International Organization 26(1): 18–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Zimmerman, William. 1987. Open borders, non-alignment and the political evolution of Yugoslavia. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations