Shoulder Examination

  • Umile Giuseppe Longo
  • Alessandra Berton
  • Nicola Maffulli
  • Vincenzo Denaro


Shoulder disease ranks among the most common musculoskeletal disorders, being the third cause of musculoskeletal disease (16 %), after the back (23 %) and knee (19 %). They represent one of the main reasons for orthopedic consult. Modern imaging studies help the specialists in the diagnosis, but an accurate history and physical examination should be the first step to determine which pathology is primarily responsible for the patient’s complaints. The shoulder is one of the most complex joints in the human body. Its evaluation is a challenge because different joints participate to the motion and direct observation of those simultaneous movements is obscured by muscles.


Rotator Cuff External Rotation Bicipital Groove Slap Lesion Scapular Plane 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Umile Giuseppe Longo
    • 1
  • Alessandra Berton
    • 1
  • Nicola Maffulli
    • 2
  • Vincenzo Denaro
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma SurgeryCampus Bio-Medico UniversityRomeItaly
  2. 2.Department of Trauma and OrthopaedicsQueen Mary University of London, Centre for Sports and Exercise MedicineLondonUK

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