Advertisement

Head and Neck Surgery

  • Brendon J. Coventry
  • Guy Rees
  • Christopher O’Brien†
Chapter
Part of the Surgery: Complications, Risks and Consequences book series (SCRC)

Abstract

Head and neck surgery encompasses a range of procedures involving the trachea for airway access, salivary glands for tumor or calculus disease, and a number of procedures for cysts, sinuses, and fistulae, congenital or acquired. Thyroid, parathyroid, and lymph node surgery are dealt with in other chapters. This chapter aims to provide useful information on complications, risks, and consequences. For other associated procedures, please refer to the relevant chapter and volume.

Keywords

Facial Nerve Respiratory Obstruction Superficial Parotidectomy Cosmetic Deformity Mandibular Branch 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Further Reading, References, and Resources

Percutaneous Mini-Tracheostomy

  1. Clemente CD. Anatomy – a regional atlas of the human body. 4th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins; 1997.Google Scholar
  2. Hsiao J, Pacheco-Fowler V. Videos in clinical medicine. Cricothyroidotomy. N Engl J Med. 2008;358(22):e25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Jamieson GG. The anatomy of general surgical operations. 2nd ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingston; 2006.Google Scholar
  4. Jenvrin J, Pean D. Cricothyroidotomy. N Engl J Med. 2008;359(10):1073.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Pierce RB. “Mini-tracheostomy” with a large-gauge needle. N Engl J Med. 1978;298(18):1036.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Open Tracheostomy

  1. Chan TC, Vilke GM, Bramwell KJ, Davis DP, Hamilton RS, Rosen P. Comparison of wire-guided cricothyrotomy versus standard surgical cricothyrotomy technique. J Emerg Med. 1999;17:957–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Clemente CD. Anatomy –a regional atlas of the human body. 4th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins; 1997.Google Scholar
  3. Hsiao J, Pacheco-Fowler V. Videos in clinical medicine. Cricothyroidotomy. N Engl J Med. 2008;358(22):e25.Google Scholar
  4. Jamieson GG. The anatomy of general surgical operations. 2nd ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingston; 2006.Google Scholar
  5. Jenvrin J, Pean D. Cricothyroidotomy. N Engl J Med. 2008;359(10):1073.Google Scholar
  6. Pierce RB. “Mini-tracheostomy” with a large-gauge needle. N Engl J Med. 1978;298(18):1036.Google Scholar
  7. Schaumann N, Lorenz V, Schellongowski P, et al. Evaluation of Seldinger technique emergency cricothyroidotomy versus standard surgical cricothyroidotomy in 200 cadavers. Anesthesiology. 2005;102:7–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Wong DT, Prabhu AJ, Coloma M, Imasogie N, Chung FF. What is the minimum training required for successful cricothyroidotomy? A study in mannequins. Anesthesiology. 2003;98:349–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Superficial Parotidectomy

  1. Al Salamah SM, Khalid K, Khan IA, Gul R. Outcome of surgery for parotid tumours: 5-year experience of a general surgical unit in a teaching hospital. ANZ J Surg. 2005;75(11):948–52.Google Scholar
  2. Bhide SA, Miah A, Barbachano Y, Harrington KJ, Newbold K, Nutting CM. Radical radiotherapy for treatment of malignant parotid tumours: a single centre experience 1995–2005. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2009;47(4):284–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bova R, Saylor A, Coman WB. Parotidectomy: review of treatment and outcomes. ANZ J Surg. 2004;74(7):563–8.Google Scholar
  4. Chew YK, Noorizan Y, Khir A, Brito-Mutunayagam S. Parotid mass: a 5-year review of parotid surgery. Med J Malaysia. 2007;62(5):388–9.Google Scholar
  5. Chiu AG, Cohen JI, Burningham AR, Andersen PE, Davidson BJ. First bite syndrome: a complication of surgery involving the parapharyngeal space. Head Neck. 2002;24(11):996–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Clemente CD. Anatomy –a regional atlas of the human body. 4th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins; 1997.Google Scholar
  7. Dulguerov P, Quinodoz D, Cosendai G, Piletta P, Marchal F, Lehmann W. Prevention of Frey syndrome during parotidectomy. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1999;125(8):833–9.Google Scholar
  8. Foghsgaard S, Foghsgaard J, Homøe P. Early post-operative morbidity after superficial parotidectomy: a prospective study concerning pain and resumption of normal activity. Clin Otolaryngol. 2007;32(1):54–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Guntinas-Lichius O, Gabriel B, Klussmann JP. Risk of facial palsy and severe Frey’s syndrome after conservative parotidectomy for benign disease: analysis of 610 operations. Acta Otolaryngol. 2006;126(10):1104–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Iyer NG, Clark JR, Murali R, Gao K, O’Brien CJ. Outcomes following parotidectomy for metastatic squamous cell carcinoma with microscopic residual disease: implications for facial nerve preservation. Head Neck. 2009;31(1):21–7.Google Scholar
  11. Jamieson GG. The anatomy of general surgical operations. 2nd ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingston; 2006.Google Scholar
  12. Lin CC, Tsai MH, Huang CC, Hua CH, Tseng HC, Huang ST. Parotid tumors: a 10-year experience. Am J Otolaryngol. 2008;29(2):94–100.Google Scholar
  13. Linkov G, Morris LG, Shah JP, Kraus DH. First bite syndrome: incidence, risk factors, treatment, and outcomes. Laryngoscope. 2012;122(8):1773–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Luna-Ortiz K, Sansón-RíoFrío JA, Mosqueda-Taylor A. Frey syndrome. A proposal for evaluating severity. Oral Oncol. 2004;40(5):501–5.Google Scholar
  15. Mavrikakis I. Facial nerve palsy: anatomy, etiology, evaluation, and management. Orbit. 2008;27(6):466–74 (review).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Meier JD, Wenig BL, Manders EC, Nenonene EK. Continuous intraoperative facial nerve monitoring in predicting postoperative injury during parotidectomy. Laryngoscope. 2006;116(9):1569–72Google Scholar
  17. Mohammed F, Asaria J, Payne RJ, Freeman JL. Retrospective review of 242 consecutive patients treated surgically for parotid gland tumours. J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2008;37(3):340–6.Google Scholar
  18. Nouraei SA, Ismail Y, Ferguson MS, McLean NR, Milner RH, Thomson PJ, Welch AR. Analysis of complications following surgical treatment of benign parotid disease. ANZ J Surg. 2008;78(3):134–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. O’Brien CJ. Current management of benign parotid tumors – the role of limited superficial parotidectomy. Head Neck. 2003;25(11):946–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. O’Regan B, Bharadwaj G, Elders A. Techniques for dissection of the facial nerve in benign parotid surgery: a cross specialty survey of oral and maxillofacial and ear nose and throat surgeons in the UK. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2008;46(7):564–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Patel RS, Low TH, Gao K, O’Brien CJ. Clinical outcome after surgery for 75 patients with parotid sialadenitis. Laryngoscope. 2007;117(4):644–7.Google Scholar
  22. Picon AI, Coit DG, Shaha AR, Brady MS, Boyle JO, Singh BB, Wong RJ, Busam KJ, Shah JP, Kraus DH. Sentinel lymph node biopsy for cutaneous head and neck melanoma: mapping the parotid gland. Ann Surg Oncol. 2006; (Epub ahead of print).Google Scholar
  23. Redaelli de Zinis LO, Piccioni M, Antonelli AR, Nicolai P. Management and prognostic factors of recurrent pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland: personal experience and review of the literature. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2008;265(4):447–52.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Roh JL, Kim HS, Park CI. Randomized clinical trial comparing partial parotidectomy versus superficial or total parotidectomy. Br J Surg. 2007;94(9):1081–7.Google Scholar
  25. Ryan WR, Fee WE. Long-term great auricular nerve morbidity after sacrifice during parotidectomy. Laryngoscope. 2009;119(6):1140–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ryan WR, Fee Jr WE. Great auricular nerve morbidity after nerve sacrifice during parotidectomy. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2006;132(6):642–9.Google Scholar
  27. Santos RC, Chagas JF, Bezerra TF, Baptistella JE, Pagani MA, Melo AR. Frey syndrome prevalence after partial parotidectomy. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. 2006;72(1):112–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Smith JA, Fleming WB. An approach to malignant parotid tumours. Aust N Z J Surg. 1989;59(4):317–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Smith SL, Komisar A. Limited parotidectomy: the role of extracapsular dissection in parotid gland neoplasms. Laryngoscope. 2007;117(7):1163–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Suen DT, Chow TL, Lam CY, Wong ES, Lam SH. Sensation recovery improved by great auricular nerve preservation in parotidectomy: a prospective double-blind study. ANZ J Surg. 2007;77(5):374–6.Google Scholar
  31. Umapathy N, Holmes R, Basavaraj S, Roux R, Cable HR. Performance of parotidectomy in nonspecialist centers. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2003;129(9):925–8; discussion 928. (review)Google Scholar
  32. Witt RL. The incidence and management of siaolocele after parotidectomy. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2009;140(6):871–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Zbar AP, Hill AD, Shering SG, Rafferty MA, Moriarty M, McDermott EW, O’Higgins NJ. A 25 year review of parotid surgery. Ir Med J. 1997;90(6):228–30.Google Scholar

Total Parotidectomy

  1. Al Salamah SM, Khalid K, Khan IA, Gul R. Outcome of surgery for parotid tumours: 5-year experience of a general surgical unit in a teaching hospital. ANZ J Surg. 2005;75(11):948–52.Google Scholar
  2. Bova R, Saylor A, Coman WB. Parotidectomy: review of treatment and outcomes. ANZ J Surg. 2004;74(7):563–8.Google Scholar
  3. Chew YK, Noorizan Y, Khir A, Brito-Mutunayagam S. Parotid mass: a 5-year review of parotid surgery. Med J Malaysia. 2007;62(5):388–9.Google Scholar
  4. Clemente CD. Anatomy –a regional atlas of the human body. 4th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins; 1997.Google Scholar
  5. Dulguerov P, Quinodoz D, Cosendai G, Piletta P, Marchal F, Lehmann W. Prevention of Frey syndrome during parotidectomy. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1999;125(8):833–9.Google Scholar
  6. Iyer NG, Clark JR, Murali R, Gao K, O’Brien CJ. Outcomes following parotidectomy for metastatic squamous cell carcinoma with microscopic residual disease: implications for facial nerve preservation. Head Neck. 2009;31(1):21–7.Google Scholar
  7. Jamieson GG. The anatomy of general surgical operations. 2nd ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingston; 2006.Google Scholar
  8. Lin CC, Tsai MH, Huang CC, Hua CH, Tseng HC, Huang ST. Parotid tumors: a 10-year experience. Am J Otolaryngol. 2008;29(2):94–100.Google Scholar
  9. Luna-Ortiz K, Sansón-RíoFrío JA, Mosqueda-Taylor A. Frey syndrome. A proposal for evaluating severity. Oral Oncol. 2004;40(5):501–5.Google Scholar
  10. Mavrikakis I. Facial nerve palsy: anatomy, etiology, evaluation, and management. Orbit. 2008;27(6):466–74 (review)Google Scholar
  11. Meier JD, Wenig BL, Manders EC, Nenonene EK. Continuous intraoperative facial nerve monitoring in predicting postoperative injury during parotidectomy. Laryngoscope. 2006;116(9):1569–72.Google Scholar
  12. Mohammed F, Asaria J, Payne RJ. Freeman JL. Retrospective review of 242 consecutive patients treated surgically for parotid gland tumours. J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2008;37(3):340–6.Google Scholar
  13. Patel RS, Low TH, Gao K, O’Brien CJ. Clinical outcome after surgery for 75 patients with parotid sialadenitis. Laryngoscope. 2007;117(4):644–7.Google Scholar
  14. Picon AI, Coit DG, Shaha AR, Brady MS, Boyle JO, Singh BB, Wong RJ, Busam KJ, Shah JP, Kraus DH. Sentinel lymph node biopsy for cutaneous head and neck melanoma: mapping the parotid gland. Ann Surg Oncol. 2006; (Epub ahead of print).Google Scholar
  15. Roh JL, Kim HS, Park CI. Randomized clinical trial comparing partial parotidectomy versus superficial or total parotidectomy. Br J Surg. 2007;94(9):1081–7.Google Scholar
  16. Ryan WR, Fee Jr WE. Great auricular nerve morbidity after nerve sacrifice during parotidectomy. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2006;132(6):642–9.Google Scholar
  17. Smith JA, Fleming WB. An approach to malignant parotid tumours. Aust N Z J Surg. 1989;59(4):317–20.Google Scholar
  18. Smith SL, Komisar A. Limited parotidectomy: the role of extracapsular dissection in parotid gland neoplasms. Laryngoscope. 2007;117(7):1163–7.Google Scholar
  19. Suen DT, Chow TL, Lam CY, Wong ES, Lam SH. Sensation recovery improved by great auricular nerve preservation in parotidectomy: a prospective double-blind study. ANZ J Surg. 2007;77(5):374–6.Google Scholar
  20. Umapathy N, Holmes R, Basavaraj S, Roux R, Cable HR. Performance of parotidectomy in nonspecialist centers. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2003;129(9):925–8; discussion 928 (review)Google Scholar
  21. Zbar AP, Hill AD, Shering SG, Rafferty MA, Moriarty M, McDermott EW, O’Higgins NJ. A 25 year review of parotid surgery. Ir Med J. 1997;90(6):228–30.Google Scholar

Parotid Cyst Excision

  1. Clemente CD. Anatomy –a regional atlas of the human body. 4th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins; 1997.Google Scholar
  2. Jamieson GG. The anatomy of general surgical operations. 2nd ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingston; 2006.Google Scholar

Submandibular Gland Excision

  1. Clemente CD. Anatomy – a regional atlas of the human body. 4th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins; 1997.Google Scholar
  2. Cunning DM, Lipke N, Wax MK. Significance of unilateral submandibular gland excision on salivary flow in noncancer patients. Laryngoscope. 1998;108(6):812–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Graham RM, Baldwin AJ. An unusual cause of Frey syndrome. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2009;47(2):146–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Jamieson GG. The anatomy of general surgical operations. 2nd ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingston; 2006.Google Scholar
  5. Kowalski LP, Sanabria A. Elective neck dissection in oral carcinoma: a critical review of the evidence. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital. 2007;27(3):113–7.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Layfield LJ, Gopez E, Hirschowitz S. Cost efficiency analysis for fine-needle aspiration in the workup of parotid and submandibular gland nodules. Diagn Cytopathol. 2006;34(11):734–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Persaud NA, Myer 3rd CM, Rutter MJ. Gustatory sweating syndrome of the submandibular gland. Ear Nose Throat J. 2000;79(2):111–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Roh JL. Removal of the submandibular gland by a submental approach: a prospective, randomized, controlled study. Oral Oncol. 2008;44(3):295–300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Roh JL, Choi SH, Lee SW, Cho KJ, Nam SY, Kim SY. Carcinomas arising in the submandibular gland: high propensity for systemic failure. J Surg Oncol. 2008;97(6):533–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Spiro RH. Salivary neoplasms: overview of a 35-year experience with 2,807 patients. Head Neck Surg. 1986;8(3):177–84.Google Scholar
  11. Terhaard CH, Lubsen H, Rasch CR, Levendag PC, Kaanders HH, Tjho-Heslinga RE, van Den Ende PL, Burlage F, Dutch Head and Neck Oncology Cooperative Group. The role of radiotherapy in the treatment of malignant salivary gland tumors. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2005;61(1):103–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Torroni AA, Mustazza MC, Bartoli DD, Iannetti GG. Transcervical submandibular sialoadenectomy. J Craniofac Surg. 2007;18(3):613–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Submandibular Duct Dilatation

  1. Clemente CD. Anatomy – a regional atlas of the human body. 4th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins; 1997.Google Scholar
  2. Jamieson GG. The anatomy of general surgical operations. 2nd ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingston; 2006.Google Scholar

Branchial Cyst/Sinus Excision

  1. Clemente CD. Anatomy – a regional atlas of the human body. 4th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins; 1997.Google Scholar
  2. Jamieson GG. The anatomy of general surgical operations. 2nd ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingston; 2006.Google Scholar
  3. Moore KL. The developing human – clinically oriented embryology. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1977.Google Scholar

Mucous Cyst Excision of Lip/Cheek

  1. Clemente CD. Anatomy – a regional atlas of the human body. 4th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins; 1997.Google Scholar
  2. Jamieson GG. The anatomy of general surgical operations. 2nd ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingston; 2006.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brendon J. Coventry
    • 1
  • Guy Rees
    • 2
  • Christopher O’Brien†
    • 3
  1. 1.Discipline of Surgery, Royal Adelaide HospitalUniversity of AdelaideAdelaideAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Ear, Nose and Throat Surgery, Royal Adelaide HospitalUniversity of AdelaideAdelaideAustralia
  3. 3.Sydney Head and Neck Cancer InstituteSydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations