# Batteries: Modeling and State of Charge Estimation

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## Abstract

In a battery, reduction and oxidation reactions occur at each of the two electrodes, which are separated by an ionically conductive electrolyte. Typically in a battery, several electrochemical cells are connected in series to provide fixed electromotive force or voltage. Unlike a fuel cell, an electrochemical cell used in a battery is one in which one or both of the reactants are permanently contained in the cell and are not continuously supplied from an external source, and the reaction products are not continuously removed.

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