Characterization of Soot

  • Cristina Arnal
  • Michela Alfè
  • Valentina Gargiulo
  • Anna Ciajolo
  • María U. Alzueta
  • Ángela Millera
  • Rafael Bilbao
Part of the Green Energy and Technology book series (GREEN)


The characterization of physical and chemical properties of the carbon particulate matter commonly named soot is relevant in the research on pollutants emitted in the atmosphere from combustion and industrial plants. The selection and the standardization of advanced analytical methods are necessary to provide reliable and reproducible results on the characteristics of carbon material. This chapter reports an overview of the main off-line techniques available to characterize carbon materials as: elemental analysis, physical adsorption with the determination of the specific surface area, electronic microscopy techniques, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, infrared spectroscopy, soot reactivity toward O2 and NO, UV–Visible spectroscopy, size exclusion chromatography and fluorescence spectroscopy. The results of the implementation of these techniques on a commercial standard carbon material (Printex-U carbon black), considered as analog of soot, are reported as case study.


Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Carbon Material Size Exclusion Chromatography Size Exclusion Chromatography Attenuate Total Reflectance 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This work was made with the support and in the frame of COST Action CM0901. Evonik Degussa GmbH is acknowledged for the Printex-U supplied. C. Arnal, M.U. Alzueta, A. Millera and R. Bilbao express their gratitude to the European Social Fund (ESF), MINECO and FEDER (Project CTQ2012-34423) for financial support. C. Arnal acknowledges the Ministerio de Educación for the predoctoral grant awarded (AP2008-03449), COST Action CM0901 and Obra social CAI through Programa Europa for the grants awarded. M. Alfè, V. Gargiulo and A. Ciajolo gratefully acknowledge the Ministero dello Sviluppo Economico within the “Accordo di Programma CNR-MSE, Gruppo Tematico Carbone Pulito- Fondo per il Finanziamento Attività di Ricerca e Sviluppo di Interesse Generale per il Sistema Elettrico Nazionale and NIPS (Nanoparticle Impact on Pulmonary Surfactant Interfacial Properties)-Seed Project 2009-IIT for the financial support.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cristina Arnal
    • 1
  • Michela Alfè
    • 2
  • Valentina Gargiulo
    • 2
  • Anna Ciajolo
    • 2
  • María U. Alzueta
    • 1
  • Ángela Millera
    • 1
  • Rafael Bilbao
    • 1
  1. 1.ThermoChemical Processes Group (GPT), Aragón Institute of Engineering Research (I3A)University of Zaragoza. Río Ebro CampusZaragozaSpain
  2. 2.Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione—C.N.RNaplesItaly

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