Energy Security as a Subset of National Security
The notion of energy security can be defined in one of two ways. It can be viewed as an economic concept or as a subset of national security. Viewed as a subset of national security, it allows for processes such as 3D vulnerability analysis to be used, which identifies areas of vulnerability in the physical infrastructure carrying energy from place to place. Some of these vulnerabilities can have national and international implications for a country’s energy security.
A conceptual framework for using 3D vulnerability analysis is presented as a methodology for collecting physical infrastructure vulnerability information. This can be used identifying areas of vulnerability—such as a particular section of transcontinental oil pipeline that if it was to fail would seriously weaken the energy security and ultimately national security of the country (or set of countries) reliant on it.
The economic approach to energy security tends to be descriptive and frequently concerned with the price and supply measures of energy security. Approaches such as these, however, are not connected with the much broader national security and foreign relations policy realms. As well, the national security approach to energy security allows incorporation with Critical National Infrastructure Protection (CNIP) concepts, such as 3D vulnerability analysis. This method can be used to collect physical infrastructure vulnerability information, which can be used to identify potential threats to energy security (as a subset of national security).
The conclusions illustrate how concepts, such as 3D vulnerability analysis, can be used to achieve energy security. The 3D vulnerability analysis approach described collects physical infrastructure vulnerability information, which can be used to identify potential threats to energy security (as a subset of national security).
The paper provides a conceptual framework for looking at 3D vulnerability analysis and the relationship of this methodology to a wider understanding of energy security and ultimately national security.
KeywordsEnergy security National security Critical national infrastructure protection (CNIP) 3D vulnerability analysis Geographical information systems (GIS)
- Al-Rodhan KR (2006) The impact of the Abqaiq attack on Saudi energy security. Center for Strategic and International Studies Arleigh A. Burke Chair in Strategy, Washington, DC. Revised 27 Feb 2006. http://www.csis.org/files/media/csis/pubs/060227_abqaiqattack.pdf
- Commission of the European Communities (CEC) (2000) Commission Green Paper of 29 November 2000 towards a European strategy for the security of energy supply, COM(2000) 769. CEC, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
- Commission of the European Communities (CEC) (2006) Proposal for a directive of the council on the identification of European critical infrastructure and the assessment for the need to improve their protection (12 Dec 2006, COM-2006-787-Final), 7. CEC, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
- Director for Joint Force Development (J-7) (2012) Joint Publication 1–02: Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms (8 Nov 2010; as amended through 15 Apr 2012), p 220Google Scholar
- Edwards GC, Walker WE (1988) Introduction. In: Edwards GC III, Walker WE (eds) National security and the U.S. constitution: the impact of the political system. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, p 1Google Scholar
- Flaherty CJ (2002) Australian-Chinese business networks: a case study of the role of networks used to organise trade between firms in Melbourne (Adelaide) and Shanghai. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Melbourne, School of Anthropology, Geography, and Environmental Studies, 2002. UniM Bail T. Call No. FLAHERTGoogle Scholar
- Flaherty CJ (2003) Australian national security thinking. Def Force J (May/June, 160):3–10Google Scholar
- Flaherty CJ (2004) Decisive strike, criticality and homeland security. Def Force J (164):43–50Google Scholar
- Flaherty C (2010) Command, influence and information in 3D tactics. J Inf Warf 9(1):18–31Google Scholar
- House of Commons (UK) (2009) Russia’s Military Posture, Research Paper 09/35. House of Commons Library, London, Apr 2009, p 68. http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200809/cmselect/cmdfence/276/27605.htm#n48
- Institute for the Analysis of Global Security (IAGS) (2012) Iraq pipeline watch. http://www.iags.org/iraqpipelinewatch.htm
- International Energy Agency (2011) 2011 Key world energy statistics. IEA, ParisGoogle Scholar
- Kaufmann WW (1988) Forward. In: Edwards GC III, Walker WE (eds) National security and the U.S. constitution: the impact of the political system. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, VIIIGoogle Scholar
- Lambeth BS (2001) NATO’s Air war for Kosovo: a strategic and operational assessment. RAND Research (MR-1365-AF)Google Scholar
- Ministry of Energy of the Russian Federation (2010) Energy strategy of Russia for the period up to 2030. Ministry of Energy of the Russian Federation, MoscowGoogle Scholar
- Nelson B (2007) Australia ‘Has Iraq Oil Interest’. News BBC (Thursday, 5 July 2007). http://www.news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/6272168.stm
- Paillard CA (2010) Rethinking Russia: Russia and Europe’s mutual energy dependence. J Int Aff 63(2):65–84Google Scholar
- U.K. Government, National Counter Terrorism Security Office (NaCTSO) (2012) Vulnerability self assessment tool (VSAT). http://www.nactso.gov.uk/OurServices/VSAT.aspx
- U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency (2002) FEMA 426 reference manual: a how-to guide to mitigate potential terrorist attacks against buildings (Dec 2002), Chap 1–45. U. S. Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- U.S. Homeland Security Act of 2002. US Government, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- U.S. President of the United States (2010) National Security Strategy. The White House (May 2010). http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/rss_viewer/national_security_strategy.pdf
- U.S. Presidential Directive PDD-63 of May 1998Google Scholar
- Webber M, Wang M, Ying Z (eds) (2002) China’s transition to a global economy. Palgrave Macmillan, New York, NY, p 53Google Scholar
- Winzer C (2011) Conceptualizing energy security (EPRG working paper 1123, Cambridge working paper in economics 1151). Cambridge University, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
- Yang J (2011) China’s energy consumption rises. Wall Street J. http://www.online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704615504576171922168262078.html