Analog Signals Conditioning and Discretization

Part of the Power Systems book series (POWSYS)


Chapter 2 is devoted to problems of analog signals acquisition for the digital control circuits of power electronics devices. In this chapter, the problems of the measurement in power electronics circuits are highlighted. Typical systems for current and voltage measurement are discussed. Particular attention is paid to galvanic isolation and the impact of a high slew rate in common mode voltage. A discussion is presented on the selection of the sample rate and number of bits. Consideration is given to the methods and circuit design to reduce quantization noise. Included is a discussion of noise shaping circuits useful for power electronics output circuits. Also included is a section on the impact of the phenomenon of jitter on the signal-to-noise ratio. In this chapter, there is also shown a method of calculating the resultant signal-to-noise ratio. Finally, in the end of this chapter a presentation of selected A/D converters suitable for use in power electronics circuits is made. Special attention is paid on simultaneously sampling A/D converters.


Alternate Current Finite Impulse Response Hall Sensor Current Transformer Rogowski Coil 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    ABB (2012) ESM1000 General informations. Technical report, ABBGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Allegro (2005) Current sensor: ACS752SCA-100. Technical report, Allegro MicroSystems Inc., ACS752100-DS Rev. 6Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Allegro (2011) ACS756, fully integrated, hall effect-based linear current sensor IC with 3 kVRMS voltage isolation and a low-resistance current conductor. Data sheet, Allegro MicroSystems Inc.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Analog Devices (1996) AD215 120 kHz bandwidth, low distortion, isolation amplifier. Analog Devices Inc.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Analog Devices (2012) AD8210, High voltage, bidirectional current shunt monitor, Analog Devices Inc.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Devices Analog (2012) AD7606/AD7606-6/AD7606-4 8-/6-/4-channel DAS with 16-bit, bipolar input, simultaneous sampling ADC. Data sheet, Analog Devices Inc.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Attia JO (1999) Electronics and circuit analysis using Matlab. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Avago (2011) HCPL-7860/HCPL-786J optically isolated sigma-delta (S-D) modulator. Technical report, Avago Technologies, AV02-0409ENGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Avago (2008) HCPL-7800A/HCPL-7800 isolation amplifier. Technical report, Avago Technologies, AV02-1436ENGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Azeredo-Leme C (2011) Clock jitter effects on sampling: a tutorial. IEEE Circ Syst Mag 3:26–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Baggini A (ed) (2008) Handbook of power quality. Wiley-Interscience a John Wiley & Sons Inc., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bossche AV, Valchev VC (2005) Inductors and transformers for power electronics. CRC Press, Boca RatonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Brannon B (2004) Sampled systems and the effects of clock phase noise and jitter. Application note AN-756, Technical report, Analog Devices Inc.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Brannon B, Barlow A (2006) Aperture uncertainty and ADC system performance. Application note AN-501, Technical report, Analog Devices Inc.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Carley RL, Schreier R, Temes GC (1997) Delta-sigma ADCs with multibit internal conveters. In: Norsworthy SR, Schreier R, Temes GC (eds) Delta-sigma data converters. Theory, design, and simulation. IEEE Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Candy J, Temes G (eds) (1992) Oversampling delta-sigma data converters. Theory, design, and simulation. IEEE Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cataltepe T, Kramer AR, Larson LE, Temes GC Walden RH (1992) Digitaly corrected multi-bit \(\Sigma \varDelta \) data converters. IEEE Proceedings of ISCAS’89, May 1989. In: Candy JC, Temes G C (eds) Oversampling delta-sigma data converters theory, design, and simulation. IEEE Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    ChenYoung (2011) Closed loop precise hall current sensor CYHCS-SH. Technical report, ChenYoungGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cummings J, Doogue MC, Friedrich AP (2007) Recent trends in hall effect current sensing (Rev. 1). AN295045, Technical report, Allegro MicroSystems Inc.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cutler C (1960) Transmission system employing quantization. United States Patent 2,927,962Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Data Translation (2008) The battle for data fidelity: understanding the SFDR spec. Technical report, Data TranslationGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Data Translation (2009) Benefits of simultaneous data acquisition modules. Technical report, Data TranslationGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Galton I (1997) Spectral shaping of cuircuit errors in digital-to-analog converters. IEEE Trans Circ Syst II Analog Digital Signal Process 44(10):789–797CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hartley RVL (1928) Transmission of information. Bell Syst Tech J 7:535–563Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hartmann M, Biela J, Ertl H, Kolar JW (2009) Wideband current transducer for measuring ac signals with limited DC offset. IEEE Trans Power Electron (24)7:1776–1787Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Holmes DG, Lipo TA (2003) Pulse width modulation for power converters: principles and practice. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Honeywell (2008) Current sensors line guide. Technical report, Honeywell International Inc.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kester W (2004) Analog-digital Conversion. Analog Devices Inc., NorwoodGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kester W (2005) The Data conversion handbook. Newnes, LondonGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kester W (2009) Understand SINAD, ENOB, SNR, THD, THD + N, and SFDR so you don’t get lost in the noise floor. Technical report, Analog Devices Inc.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kotelnikov AV (1933) On the capacity of the ’ether’ and of cables in electrical communication. In: Proceedings of the first all-union conference on the technological reconstruction of the communications sector and low-current engineering, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    LEM (2004) Isolated current and voltage transducer, 3 edn. LEM Components, MilwaukeeGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    LEM (2012) Current transducer LA 55-P. LEM ComponentsGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    LEM (2012) Current transducer LA 205-S. Technical report, LEM ComponentsGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lyons R (2004) Understanding digital signal processing, 2nd edn. Prentice Hall, Englewood CliffsGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Mota M (2010) Understanding clock jitter effects on data converter performance and how to minimize them. Technical report, Synopsis Inc.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Norsworthy SR (1997) Quantization errors and dithering in modulators. In: Norsworthy SR, Schreier R, Temes GC (eds) Delta-sigma data converters: theory, design, and simulation. IEEE Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Norsworthy SR, Schreier R, Temes GC (eds) (1997) Delta-sigma data converters, theory, design, and simulation. IEEE Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Nyquist H (1924) Certain factors affecting telegraph speed. Bell Syst Tech J 3:324–346Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Nyquist H (1928) Certain topics in telegraph transmission theory. AIEE Trans 47:617–644Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Oppenheim AV, Schafer RW (1999) Discrete-time signal processing. Prentice Hall, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Orfanidis SJ (2010) Introduction to signal processing. Prentice Hall Inc., Englewood CliffsGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Plassche R (2003) CMOS integrated analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters. Springer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Proakis JG, Manolakis DM (1996) Digital signal processing, principles, algorithms, and application. Prentice Hall Inc., Englewood CliffsGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Rabiner LR, Gold B (1975) Theory and application of digital signal processing. Prentice Hall Inc., Englewood CliffsGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ray WF, Davis RM (1993) Wide bandwidth Rogowski current transducer: part 1—the Rogowski coil. EPE J (3)2:116–122Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Ray WF, Davis RM (1993) Wide bandwidth Rogowski current transducer: part 2—the integrator. EPE J (3)1:51–59Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ray WF, Davis RM (1997) Developments in Rogowski current transducer. In: EPE conference proceedings, vol 3. Trondheim, pp 308–312Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Redmayne D, Trelewicz E, Smith A (2006) Understanding the effect of clock jitter on high speed ADCs. Design note 1013, Technical report, Linear Technology Inc.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Rollier S (2012) High accuracy, high technology: the perfect choice! ITB 300-S / IT 400-S / IT 700-S current transducers. Technical report, LEM ComponentsGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Schreier R Temes GC (2004) Understanding delta-sigma data converters. Wiley-IEEE Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Shannon CE (1948) A mathematical theory of communication. Bell Syst Tech J 27:379–423, 623–656Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Sozanski K (1999) Design and research of digital filters banks using digital signal processors. PhD thesis, Technical University of Poznan (in Polish)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Sozanski K, Strzelecki R, Fedyczak Z, (2001) Digital control circuit for class-D audio power amplifier. In: Conference proceedings, 2001 IEEE 32nd annual power electronics specialists conference—PESC, vol 2001, pp 1245–1250Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Spang H, Schulthessis P (1962) Reduction of quantizing noise by use of feedback. IRE Trans Commun Syst 10:373–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Strzelecki R, Fedyczak Z, Sozanski K, Rusinski J (2000) Active power filter EFA1. Technical report, Instytut Elektrotechniki Przemyslowej, Politechnika Zielonogorska (in Polish)Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Instruments Texas (2005) ISO124 precision lowest-cost isolation amplifier. Data sheet, Texas Instruments Inc.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Instruments Texas (2006) ADS8364 250kSPS, 16-bit, 6-channel simultaneous sampling analog-to-digital converter. Data sheet, Texas Instruments Inc.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Texas Instruments (2009) ISO120, ISO121 precision low cost isolation amplifier. Technical report, ISO121.pdf, Texas Instruments Inc.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Instruments Texas (2008) TMS320F28335/28334/28332, TMS320F28235/28234/28232, digital signal controllers (DSCs). Data manual, Texas Instruments Inc.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Instruments Texas (2010) INA270, INA271 voltage output, unidirectional measurement current-shunt monitor. Data sheet, Texas Instruments Inc.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Texas Instruments (2010) C2000 teaching materials, tutorials and applications. SSQC019, Texas Instruments Inc.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Instruments Texas (2011) ADS1274, ADS1278, quad/octal, simultaneous sampling, 24-bit analog-to-digital converters.Data sheet, Texas Instruments Inc.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Tewksbury S (1978) Oversampled, linear predictive and noise-shaping coders of order N \(>\)1. IEEE Trans Circ Syst 25(7):436–447Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Vishay (2011) Linear optocoupler, high gain stability, wide bandwidth. Data sheet, Vishay Semiconductor GmbHGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Zolzer U (2008) Digital audio signal processing. Wiley, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Zolzer U (ed) (2002) DAFX—Digital audio effects. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Zumbahlen H (ed) (2007) Basic linear design. Analog Devices Inc., NorwoodGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Electrical EngineeringUniversity of Zielona GóraZielona GóraPoland

Personalised recommendations