Transmyocardial Laser Revascularization: Physiology, Pathology, and Basic Research Concepts

  • Anthony J. Minisi
  • Deepak D. Banerjee
  • Laxmi B. Mohanty


Significant improvements in the outcome of cardiac surgery and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have led to enhanced survival among patients with severe coronary artery disease. However, it has also created a population of patients never before encountered in the field of Cardiovascular Medicine. These patients, who often have had coronary bypass surgery and/or PCI multiple times, are characterized by far advanced, end-stage coronary artery disease and disabling anginal symptoms which are refractory to medical therapy with maximal doses of antianginal drugs such as nitrates, beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, and ranolazine. New therapeutic modalities are required to treat this group of patients. One of these modalities is transmyocardial laser revascularization (TMLR). This technique has been shown to improve symptomatic status in patients with end-stage coronary artery disease who cannot receive further traditional surgical or percutaneous revascularization. In this chapter, we will review the clinical experience with TMLR as well as the potential mechanisms of action by which TMLR can improve quality of life in this select group of patients.


Coronary artery disease Myocardial ischemia Angina Transmyocardial laser 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anthony J. Minisi
    • 1
  • Deepak D. Banerjee
    • 1
    • 2
  • Laxmi B. Mohanty
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Division of CardiologyMcGuire VA Medical Center and Medical College of Virginia, Campus of Virginia Commonwealth UniversityRichmondUSA
  2. 2.Interventional CardiologyMemorial Hospital of Martinsville and Henry CountiesMartinsvilleUSA
  3. 3.Department of Pathology and Laboratory MedicineMcGuire VA Medical CenterRichmondUSA

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