Ecological Footprint: The Example of Gauteng Region

  • Enver Doruk Özdemir
  • Sheetal Dattatraya Marathe
Part of the Green Energy and Technology book series (GREEN)


Since Wackernagel and Rees introduced the idea of the ecological footprint in 1992 [28, 21, 27], it has been established as a concept of measuring the sustainability of nations, regions, cities, individuals, industrial goods, etc. Today, the ecological footprint is seen as a measure of demand of natural resources with respect to the regeneration capacity of the Earth. Since the findings of Rees [21], quite sophisticated calculation procedures have been defined [15]. They are based on the generic idea that every impact on earth—which is a closed system—can be converted to an amount of biologically productive area. To allow comparability, they are expressed in global hectares (gha), which represent the average spatial productivity worldwide.


Conversion Factor Ecological Footprint Gauteng Province Sustainability Aspect Capita Energy Consumption 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Enver Doruk Özdemir
    • 1
  • Sheetal Dattatraya Marathe
    • 2
  1. 1.German Aerospace CenterStuttgartGermany
  2. 2.Institute for Energy Economics and the Rational Use of Energy (IER)University of StuttgartStuttgartGermany

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