• Bram de Jager
  • Thijs van Keulen
  • John Kessels
Part of the Advances in Industrial Control book series (AIC)


This Introduction presents a motivation for the use of hybrid vehicles and provides a general introduction to control in hybrid vehicles. The main motives for implementing hybrid technologies are an improvement in fuel economy and a reduction of exhaust gas emissions. The main hindrances are the added component complexity, the restrictions on the operational regime (optimality in the presence of constraints), and the associated cost. Some alternatives that achieve the same benefits, but which may add other impediments, also deserve mentioning. A road map for hybrid technology, based on past, current and expected trends, outlines what could be done with this technology. This starts with remarks about general aspects and culminates in a discussion about the possibilities of control.


Fuel Economy Prime Mover Hybrid Vehicle Power Converter Adaptive Cruise Control 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Al-Qadi IL, Elseifi MA (2007) New generation of wide-base tires: impact on trucking operations, environment, and pavements. Transp Res Rec 2008(1):100–109 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alam AA, Gattami A, Johansson KH (2010) An experimental study on the fuel reduction potential of heavy duty vehicle platooning. In: Proc IEEE conf intell transp syst. IEEE, New York, pp 306–311 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson CD, Anderson J (2010) Electric and Hybrid Cars: A History, 2nd edn. McFarland & Company, Inc., Jefferson, NC, USA Google Scholar
  4. Bandivadekar A, Bodek K, Cheah L, Evans C, Groode T, Heywood J, Kasseris E, Kromer M, Weiss M (2008) On the road in 2035: reducing transportation’s petroleum consumption and GHG emissions. Tech rep LFEE 2008-05, RP, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Google Scholar
  5. Benz KF (1886) Fahrzeug mit Gasmotorenbetrieb. Patent nr 37435 Google Scholar
  6. Clarke FH (1983) Optimization and nonsmooth analysis. Wiley, New York zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  7. Edwards R, Larivé JF, Mahieu V, Rouveirolles P (2006) Well-to-wheels analysis of future automotive fuels and powertrains in the European context. WELL-TO-TANK report version 2b. European Commission Joint Research, Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability Google Scholar
  8. Franzese O, Davidson D (2011) Effect of weight and roadway grade on the fuel economy of class-8 freight trucks. Tech rep ORNL/TM-2011/471, Oak Ridge National Laboratory.
  9. Franzese O, Knee HE, Slezak L (2010) Effect of wide-based single tires on fuel efficiency of class 8 combination trucks. Transp Res Rec 2191(1):1–7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Geering HP (2007) Optimal control with engineering applications. Springer, Berlin zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  11. Hofman T (2007) Framework for combined control and design optimization of hybrid vehicle propulsion systems. PhD thesis, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven, The Netherlands Google Scholar
  12. IEA (2007) World Energy Outlook 2007. Stedi media. Paris, France Google Scholar
  13. IEA (2009) Transport, energy and CO2: moving towards sustainability. International Energy Agency, Paris.
  14. IEA (2010) Transport energy efficiency: Implementation of IEA recommendations since 2009 and next steps. Tech rep, International Energy Agency.
  15. IEA (2011a) Technology roadmap: biofuels for transport. Tech rep, International Energy Agency.
  16. IEA (2011b) Technology roadmap: electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Tech rep, International Energy Agency.
  17. IEA (2012) Technology roadmap: fuel economy of road vehicles. Tech rep, International Energy Agency.
  18. Van Keulen T, Naus GJL, De Jager B, Molengraft MJG, Steinbuch M, Aneke NPI (2009) Predictive cruise control in hybrid electric vehicles. In: Proc internat battery, hybrid and fuel cell electric veh symp. Stavanger, Norway, 6 pages Google Scholar
  19. Van Keulen T, De Jager B, Foster D, Steinbuch M (2010) Velocity trajectory optimization in hybrid electric trucks. In: Proc American control conf, Baltimore, MD, USA, pp 5074–5079 Google Scholar
  20. Lahrmann H, Agerholm N, Tradisauskas N, Berthelsen KK, Harms L (2012) Pay as you speed, ISA with incentives for not speeding: results and interpretation of speed data. Accid Anal Prev 48:17–28 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. McKinnon A (2008) Advice on CO2 emissions from the UK freight transport sector. Tech rep, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, UK. Advice to the Shadow Climate Change Committee (revised and corrected version for website).pdf
  22. McKinnon A (2010) European freight transport statistics: limitations, misinterpretations and aspirations. Tech rep, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, UK.
  23. Mock P, German J, Bandivadekar A, Riemersma I (2012) Discrepancies between type-approval and “real-world” fuel-consumption and CO2 values: assessment for 2001–2011 European passenger cars. Working paper 2012-2, ICCT, Washington, Berlin, San Francisco.
  24. Naus GJL, Vugts RPA, Ploeg J, Van de Molengraft MRJG, Steinbuch M (2010) String-stable CACC design and experimental validation: a frequency-domain approach. IEEE Trans Veh Technol 59(9):4268–4279 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ngo V, Hofman T, Steinbuch M, Serrarens A (2012) Optimal control of the gearshift command for hybrid electric vehicles. IEEE Trans Veh Technol 61(8):3531–3543 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Pontryagin LS, Boltyanskii VG, Gamkrelidze RV, Mischenko EF (1962) The mathematical theory of optimal processes. Wiley, New York zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  27. Vinter R (2000) Optimal control. Systems & control: foundations & applications. Springer, New York Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bram de Jager
    • 1
  • Thijs van Keulen
    • 2
  • John Kessels
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringEindhoven University of TechnologyEindhovenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.DAF Trucks N.V.EindhovenThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Department of Electrical EngineeringEindhoven University of TechnologyEindhovenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations