Design of Compact Heat Exchangers for Transfer Intensification



Beginning with the concept of micro heat exchangers and its advantages and disadvantages, we illustrate the notion of heat transfer intensification by several innovative designs of mini-scale heat exchangers proposed during our research work. Distinct from other approaches, we do not seek extra fine channel size. On the contrary, we work on how to effectively manage the hydrodynamic aspects and the geometric organization of heat transfer surface to intensify heat transfer with acceptable increase of total pressure drop, for example, using internal (chaotic) mixing, multi-passage configuration and multi-scale geometries. Other influencing factors such as materials, flow maldistribution and fabricating techniques are also discussed for a global consideration of efficient and compact heat exchanger designs.


Heat Transfer Heat Transfer Coefficient Heat Exchanger Heat Transfer Enhancement Selective Laser Melting 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Bejan A (2000) Shape and structure, from engineering to nature. Cambridge University Press, UKMATHGoogle Scholar
  2. Bejan A (2002) Dendritic constructal heat exchanger with small-scale cross flows and larger-scales counterflows. Int J Heat Mass Trans 45:4607–4620MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bejan A, Lorente S (2008) Design with constructal theory, 1st edn. Wiley, HobokenCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bergles AE (1997) Heat transfer enhancement-the encouragement and accommodation of high heat fluxes. J Heat Trans 119:8–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bergles AE (1999) Enhanced heat transfer: endless frontier, or mature and routine? Enhanced Heat Trans 6:79–88Google Scholar
  6. Bergles AE (2002) ExHFT for fourth generation heat transfer technology. Exp Therm Fluid Sci 26:335–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bergles AE, Jensen MK, Shome B (1996) The literature on enhancement of convective heat and mass transfer. Enhanced Heat Trans 4:1–6Google Scholar
  8. Bier W, Keller W, Linder G, Seidel D, Schubert K (1990) Manufacturing and testing of compact micro heat-exchanger with high volumetric heat transfer coefficients. Microstruct Sens Actuators DSC 19:189–197Google Scholar
  9. Bier W, Keller W, Linder G, Seidel D, Schubert K, Martin H (1993) Gas to gas heat transfer in micro heat exchangers. Chem Eng Process 32:33–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chagny C, Castelain C, Peerhossaini H (2000) Chaotic heat transfer for heat exchanger design and comparison with a regular regime for a large range of Reynolds numbers. App Therm Eng 20:1615–1648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chiou JP (1978) Thermal performance deterioration in cross flow heat exchanger due to flow nonuniformity. ASME J Heat Trans 100:580–587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chiou JP (1980) The advancement of compact heat exchanger theory considering the effects of longitudinal heat conduction and flow nonuniformity effects. In: Shah RK, McDonald CF, Howards CP (eds) Compact heat exchangers-mechanical engineering-history, technological advancement and mechanical design problems. ASME, New York, pp 101–121Google Scholar
  13. Da Silva AK, Lorente S, Bejan A (2004) Constructal multi-scale tree-shaped heat exchangers. J App Phys 96:1709–1718CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Daniels BJ, Liburdy JA, Pence DV (2011) Experimental studies of adiabatic flow boiling in fractal-like branching micro channels. Exp Therm Fluid Sci 35:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fan Y, Luo L (2008) Recent applications of advances in microcanal heat exchangers and multi-scale design optimization. Heat Trans Eng 29:461–474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fan Y, Luo L (2009) Second law analysis of a cross-flow heat exchanger equipped with constructal distributor/collector. Int J Exergy 6:778–792CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fan Y, Boichot R, Goldin T, Luo L (2008) Flow distribution property of the constructal distributor and heat transfer intensification in a mini heat exchanger. AICHE J 54:2796–2808CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fan JF, Ding WK, Zhang JF, He YL, Tao WQ (2009) A performance evaluation plot of enhanced heat transfer techniques oriented for energy-saving. Int J Heat Mass Trans 52:33–34MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Guo ZY, Li ZX (2003) Size effect on microscale single-phase flow and heat transfer. Int J Heat Mass Trans 46:149–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gruss JA, Bouzon C, Thonon B (2005) Extruded microchannel-structured heat exchangers. Heat Trans Eng 26:56–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Guichardon P, Falk L, Villermaux J (2000) Characterisation of micromixing efficiency by the iodide-iodate reaction system. part II: kinetic study. Chem Eng Sci 55:4245–4253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Harris C, Despa M, Kelly K (2000) Design and fabrication of a cross-flow micro heat exchanger. J Microelectromech Sys IEEE 9:502–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hetsroni G, Mosyak A, Pogrebnyak E, Yarin LP (2005) Fluid flow in micro-channels. Int J Heat Mass Trans 48:1982–1998CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Heymann D, Pence D, Narayanan V (2010) Optimization of fractal-like branching microchannel heat sinks for single-phase flows. Int J Therm Sci 49:1383–1393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Janicke MT, Kestenbaum H, Hagendorf U, Schüth F, Fichtner M, Schubert K (2000) The controlled oxidation of hydrogen from an explosive mixture of gases using a microstructured reactor/heat exchanger and Pt/Al2O3 catalyst. J Catal 191:282–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kakac S, Bergles AE, Mayinger F, Yuncu H (1999) Heat transfer enhancement of heat exchangers. Kluwer, Dordrecht, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  27. Kang SW, Chang YT, Chang GS (2002) The manufacture and test of (110) orientation silicon based micro heat exchanger. Tamkang J Sci Eng 5:129–136Google Scholar
  28. Khan MG, Fartaj A (2011) A review on microchannel heat exchangers and potential applications. Int J Energy Res 35:553–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kitoo JB, Robertson JM (1987) Maldistribution of flow and its effect on heat exchanger performance. Amer Soc Mech Eng, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  30. Li Q (2012) The optimization of fluid flow and heat transfer in high-temperature pressurized-air solar receivers. PhD thesis of Université de Perpignan via DomitiaGoogle Scholar
  31. Li Q, Flamant G, Yuan X, Neveu P, Luo L (2011) Compact heat exchangers: A review and future applications for a new generation of high temperature solar receivers. Renew Sust Energ Rev 15:4855–4875 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Luo L (2001) Intensification des transferts en milieux poreux. Mémoire d’Habilitation à Diriger des Recherches, INPL: Nancy, France, ISBN: 2-905267-36-4Google Scholar
  33. Luo L, Tondeur D (2005) Multiscale optimization of flow distribution by constructal approach. Chin Particuology 3:329–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Luo L, D’Ortona U, Tondeur D (2000) Compact heat exchangers. Microreaction technology: industrial prospects 556–565, SpringerGoogle Scholar
  35. Luo L, Hoareau B, D’Ortona U, Tondeur D, Le Gall H, Corbel S (2001) Design, fabrication and experimental study of new compact mini heat-exchangers. Microreaction Technologys, 68–69, SpringerGoogle Scholar
  36. Luo L, Fan Y, Tondeur D (2007a) Heat exchanger: from micro to multi-scale design optimization. Int J Energy Res 31:1266–1274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Luo L, Fan Y, Zhang W, Yuan X, Midoux N (2007b) Integration of constructal distributors to a mini crossflow heat exchanger and their assembly configuration optimization. Chem Eng Sci 62:3605–3619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Luo L, Fan Z, Le Gall H, Zhou X, Yuan W (2008) Experimental study of constructal distributor for flow equidistribution in mini crossflow heat exchanger (MCHE). Chem Eng Process 47:229–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mandelbrot B (1982) The fractal geometry of nature, 2nd edn. WH. Freeman, San FranciscoMATHGoogle Scholar
  40. Manglik RM (2003) Heat transfer enhancement. In: Bejan A, Kraus AD (eds.) Heat Transfer Handbook. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  41. Maranzana G, Perry I, Maillet D (2004) Mini- and micro-channels: influence of axial conduction in the walls. Int J Heat Mass Trans 47:3993–4004MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Marques C, Kelly KW (2004) Fabrication and performance of a pin fin micro heat exchanger. J Heat Trans 126:434–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Martin H (1981) Structures convectives d’écoulement- étude de leur effet sur l’amélioration des échanges thermiques. Société française des thermiciens, B1–B13Google Scholar
  44. Mokrani O, Bourouga B, Castelain C, Peerhossaini H (2009) Fluid flow and convective heat transfer in flat microchannels. Int J Heat Mass Trans 52:1337–1352MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Morini GL (2004) Single-phase convective heat transfer in microchannels: a review of experimental results. Int J Therm Sci 43:631–651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Mougin P, Pons M, Villermaux J (1996) Catalytic reactions at an artificial fractal interface: simulation with the ‘Devil’s comb’. Chem Eng J Biochem Eng J 64:63–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Mueller AC, Chiou JP (1988) Review of various types of flow maldistribution in heat exchangers. Heat Trans Eng 9:36–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Newton I (1701) Scala graduum caloris. The philosophical transactions of the royal society of London, Vol. 22, pp. 824–829; translated from the latin in the philosophical transactions of the royal society of london, abridged, Vol. 4 (1694–1702), London, pp. 572–575 (1809)Google Scholar
  49. Pence D (2010) The simplicity of fractal-like flow networks for effective heat and mass transport. Exp Therm Fluid Sci 34:474–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Rands C, Webb BW, Maynes D (2006) Characterization of transition to turbulence in microchannels. Int J Heat Mass Trans 49:2924–2930CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Saber M, Commenge JM, Falk L (2010) Heat transfer characteristics in multi-scale flow networks with parallel channels. Chem Eng Process 49:732–739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Shah RK (1991) Compact heat exchanger technology and applications. In: Foumeny EA, Heggs PJ (eds) Heat Exchange Engineering, Volume 2: Compact Heat Exchangers: Techniques of Size Reduction, 1–23, Ellis Horwood Limited, LondonGoogle Scholar
  53. Sieder EM, Tate CE (1936) Heat transfer and pressure drop of liquids in tubes. Ind Eng Chem 28:1429–1435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Steinke ME, Kandlikar SG (2004) Single-phase heat transfer enhancement techniques in microchannel and minichannel flows. International Conference on Microchannels and Minichannels, pp. 141–148, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  55. Steinke ME, Kandlikar SG (2006) Single-phase liquid friction factors in microchannels. Int J Therm Sci 45:1073–1083CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Thome JR (1990) Enhanced boiling heat transfer. Hemisphere, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  57. Thonon B, Mercier P (1996) Plate heat exchangers: ten years of research at GRETh: part 2. sizing and flow maldistribution. Revue Générale de Thermique 35:561–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Van der Vyver H (2003) Heat transfer characteristics of a fractal heat exchanger. PhD Thesis, rand Afrikaans University, JohannesburgGoogle Scholar
  59. Villermaux J, Schweich D, Authelin JR (1987) Le«Peigne du Diable»un Modèle d’Interface Fractale Bidimensionnelle, CR Acad Sci. Paris 304, Series II 307–310Google Scholar
  60. Webb RL (1994) Principles of enhanced heat transfer. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  61. Webb RL, Bergles AE (1983) Heat transfer enhancement: second generation technology. Mech Eng 115:60–67Google Scholar
  62. Whitham JM (1896) The effects of retarders in fire tubes of steam boilers. Street Railway J 12:374Google Scholar
  63. Wu HY, Cheng P (2003) Friction factors in smooth trapezoidal silicon microchannels with different aspect ratios. Int J Heat Mass Trans 46:2519–2525MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Zimparov V (2002) Energy conservation through heat transfer enhancement techniques. Int J Energy Res 26:675–696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Zimparov VD, da Silva AK, Bejan A (2006) Constructal tree-shaped parallel flow heat exchangers. Int J Heat Mass Trans 49:4558–4566MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratoire de Thermocinétique de Nantes, UMR CNRS 6607Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)Nantes Cedex 03France
  2. 2.Processes, Materials and Solar Energy Laboratory (CNRS-PROMES)Odeillo Font-RomeuFrance

Personalised recommendations