Congenital Cardio Thoracic Surgery

  • Prem Sundar Venugopal
  • Harikrishna Doshi


The word congenital derives its meaning from Latin word ‘Congenitus’ where ‘con’ means ‘together’ and ‘genitus’ means ‘born’. Congenital heart disease refers to any defect of the heart present from birth. It includes structural defects, congenital arrhythmias, and cardiomyopathies. At least eight in every 1000 babies are born with a heart or circulatory condition and only a quarter of these are detected by ultrasound scans.


Congenital heart disease Cardiac surgery Outcomes 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Lady Cilento Children’s HospitalBrisbaneAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Heart and Lung TransplantationPapworth HospitalPapworthUK

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