Birth Trauma

  • Mark Tattersall
  • Devender Roberts
  • Leanne Bricker
Chapter

Abstract

Birth trauma refers to the variety of injuries that can be sustained by the infant during the process of labour and delivery. It is a significant cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. The process of birth involves a combination of mechanical forces acting upon the fetus that can produce tissue haemorrhage and disruption of physiological integrity. These factors may result from the method of delivery, route of delivery or fetal position and size. In addition, obstetric intervention may amplify the effects of these forces and cause or exacerbate birth trauma. Whilst one aim of the obstetrician is to prevent birth trauma by identifying fetuses at risk and making appropriate plans for delivery, most birth injuries are unavoidable and occur despite skilled obstetric and neonatal care. In any discussion of birth trauma it is important to realise that whilst caesarean delivery may be protective of some types of birth trauma, fetal injuries can be seen with caesarean section, even when this is performed as an elective procedure.

Keywords

Fetus Birth injuries Newborn Newborn surgery 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark Tattersall
    • 1
  • Devender Roberts
    • 2
  • Leanne Bricker
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Women’s and Children HealthUniversity of Liverpool, Liverpool Women’s HospitalLiverpoolUK
  2. 2.Liverpool Women’s HospitalLiverpoolUK
  3. 3.Corniche HospitalAbu DhabiUnited Arab Emirates

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